I-Afrika: ama-agro-imperialists athatha indawo epulazini

Abalimi base-Afrika
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Ezwenikazi lase-Afrika, okuyinto kuphela has a ingxenye yomhlaba eyodwa kwezine evundile, igxile 41% komhlaba ukuthengiselana, inombolo ingqikithi 1 515 ukuthengiselana emhlabeni wonke, ngokusho kombiko wakamuva NGO ActionAid International, esukela ngasekupheleni kungenzeka i-2014. "Kusukela 2000 nyaka, 1 600 ngaphezulu emikhulu ukuthengiselana abangu bodokotela, endaweni ingqikithi kumahekthare ayizigidi ezingu 60," isihambile NGO wathi "kungenzeka ukuthi abaningi ukuthenga okuphakathi noma okukhulu kuyaqhubeka kuze kube yimanje akukho okubhalwe phansi noma okuqinisekisiwe. " Umbiko kombiko ikhasi amabili, "Raid kusezweni: kanjani emhlabeni kuvula indlela umhlaba washo yizinkampani," lembula ngempela ngokwezinga zalesi simo lapho esongela hhayi kuphela okusinda izigidi zabantu emhlabeni wonke, kodwa futhi eziphilayo zengozi, amahlathi nezilwane.

I-NGO iye yaba nesithakazelo kakhulu e-Afrika, ngoba leli zwekazi liye laba ukukhanga okusha kwezizwe eziningi, izimali zempesheni kanye namaqembu amaningi okudla azuzile, ngokuhambisana nohulumeni basekhaya, izigidi zamaRandi. amahektare wezwe elihle.

Amazwe aseqalile ukuthenga umhlaba ovundile ukuhlangabezana nezidingo zabo zokudla nokukhiqiza ama-biofuels. I-Saudi Arabia, i-Qatar, i-India ivame ukucashunwa emibikweni yalezi zinhlangano ezingekho ngaphansi kwemikhakha eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-NGOs, futhi yaqaphela amandla amakhulu, njenge-United States, amanye amazwe angamalungu e-European Union (eFrance, eJalimane naseBrithani , E-Netherlands), futhi eminyakeni yamuva, iChina ifuna ukuba nesabelo sayo e-Afrika ukuhlangabezana nokufunwa kwendawo. ENingizimu Afrika yase-Sahara, isifunda esinokusimama okukhulu kwezombangazwe nezokuphepha, ukuthunjwa komhlaba kwamazwe ambalwa okuvundiwe kwenziwa yiziphathimandla, eziye zalahla izinkulungwane zabantu abalimi bomthombo wabo wokuphila.

Ukuqothulwa komhlaba kuye kwasungulwa ukungabi khona kwezinto eziphathekayo abahlali abazange bakwazi ukuzenza, endaweni lapho umhlaba ulawulwa khona izinhloko zezizwe.

Amazwe empini, izwe elidayiswayo?

E-Afrika engaseningizimu yeSahara, i-10% yalezi zizwe ezivuthiwe ibhaliswe ezirejistini ezisemthethweni. Ezolimo umfutho ngaphansi ikhava ukuqeda indlala ukuthi zihlupha njalo izigidi zabantu kule ndawo eyomile, ohulumeni basekhaya asethengisiwe cishe ngentengo ufanekisela amakhulu ezinkulungwane amahektha ukuze biofuel abakhiqizi abaye bagxeka ama-NGO amaningi, kuhlanganise noGrain, okuhlala njalo ehlaselwa amanye amazwe athengisa la mazwe.

Kulula ukubona ukuthi amazwe okubhekiswe yilabo sengathi zimali ziyafana ukuthi ukunyakaziswa yizingxabano zezombangazwe nezimpi zobuzwe nezenkolo. I zihlanganisa South Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC noma Congo - Kinshasa), Sudan, Sierra Leone, Mozambique, Liberia, Tanzania, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Nigeria kanye Republic IsiCongo (Congo-Brazzaville). Isiqhingi Red (Madagascar) owaphila izinkinga sezombusazwe kuleliya 2009, kulandela wokumelana ukudayiswa 300 000 amahektha sezwe ngokuqinile South Korean Daewoo, uhlala ilitshe ezidla ezinye ka nomhlabathi ovundile.

Ngamanye amazwi, ngaphandle empini yase-ukulawula uwoyela amaminerali ezifakwa kula mazwe, enye impi ezenzeka ebusweni futhi ilukuluku abezindaba ezivame ukubona e ukuvukela kwezinceku abampofu e-Afrika ukuthi udlame phakathi kwezizwe emhlabeni ukuxhashazwa kwamaphuzu amanzi namadlelo. Kodwa-ke, inqwaba yabantu, phakathi kwabalimi nabelusi, ihlaselwa ohulumeni babo, ababazingela nge-powder ne-bulldozers ezivela emasimini abo, abahlala kuwo iminyaka eminingi. Izindawo ezingezona nje izikhala zokuphila komnotho, kodwa amasiko okhokho. Kwemibhikisho ukuthi wazamazama Maputo 2010 akazange akuvimbele ukukhandwa uhulumeni ukunikeza kumahekthare ayizigidi ezingu 6,6 e-US kanye nezinkampani zakwamanye amazwe. I-Mozambique ine-hektare yezigidi ezingu-36 zomhlaba ovulekile, noma i-46% yendawo yayo, efanelekile ukulima, futhi yi-10% kuphela eqhutshwayo.

Esikhundleni sokumisa inqubomgomo yezolimo evikelekile yokudla okuzoqinisekisa ukuphepha kokudla, uhulumeni waseMaputo ukhetha ukuyeka umhlaba wakhe embonini yezinto eziphilayo ezibhubhisa. Okwamanje, i-40% yamaMozambique ihlupheka ngenxa yokungondleki, ngokusho kwezibalo ezisemthethweni ze-UN NGOs.

I-Democratic Republic of Congo (i-DRC) ayizange isuke embusweni kusukela i-50% yomhlaba wayo ovundile udlule ngaphansi kokulawulwa kwamazwe angaphandle namafemu angaphandle ayenesithakazelo ekusetshenzisweni kwephansi ngaphansi ngaphandle kokukhokha intela noma imali.

Futhi uma kufanele bakhokhe, lezi zibalo zihlekisa futhi kunalokho zizuze amalungu omndeni ophethe. Lokhu kunjalo futhi engumakhelwane Republic of Congo lapho ithengiswe 46% ezweni layo evundile kuya izilwane ezidla ezinye efanayo kukhona afuna ucezu kancane ezweni cultivable, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi kungenjongo yokuba ukudla noma okuphakelayo umkhakha inani labantu abathengayo, njengalokhu kwenzeka eSaudi Arabia naseQatar, amazwe amabili ehlane ayengenisa konke ukudla kwawo. Bobabili amazwe eyakuthola ngenkathi intengo yokucindezelwa nguhulumeni zase-Addis Ababa ngokumelene abalimi kanye Abanikazi bamapulazi, amashumi ezinkulungwane amahektha ukuze kwaneliswe isidingo ezifuywayo ukuze izithelo nemifino. Ukusola kokubulawa kwabantu okwakhiwa yibutho laseTopiya ukuze kususwe phansi "kubatshalizimali" kuye kwaba incwadi efile.

Bangobani abathengi?

"I-United States kukhona umthombo izivumelwano kakhulu utshalomali (izigidi ezingu 7,09 hectares), kulandele Malaysia (3,35 m ha), i-United Arab Emirates (2,82 m ha), e-United Kingdom (m 2,96 ha), India (1,99 m ha), Singapore (1,88 m ha), Netherlands (1,68 m ha), Saudi Arabia (1,57 m ha), Brazil (1,37 m ha), futhi China (1,34 m ha), "ubala idokhumenti ezikhishwe ActionAid ikhombe Land Matrix, inhlangano ezimele ukuthi has a database ocebile umhlaba ukuthengiselana bhalisiwe emhlabeni wonke.

Ngaphandle kwamazwe okuthenga, izikhungo zezezimali, izimali zokutshalwa kwezimali kanye namaqembu ezimboni eziye zaphazamiseka kakhulu ngengozi yezomnotho ye-2008, ziye zaqondisa intshisekelo yazo kulo makethe.

"Ucwaningo oluqhutshwa uDeutsche Bank Research lubonisa ukuthi kunezigaba ezintathu ezinkulu ezithinta izomnotho ezithintekayo emkhakheni wezolimo: ohulumeni abafuna ukuthola umhlaba ngaphandle ukuze bavikele izimpahla zabo zokudla ezinamandla, izinkampani zezolimo ezifuna ukwandisa ukukhiqizwa kwazo noma ukuhlanganisa ukuthengiswa kwezimali, kanye nabathengi bemali, "wanezela umbhalo ofanayo. abadlali onethonya kwezezimayini, amabhizinisi ezokuvakasha kanye namahlathi ezivuna ayihlalanga kude le mpi ukuthi kuzokwenza eside, esikhulu ukuqhuma nomphakathi kuleli zwekazi. "Ucwaningo lubonisa ukuthi laba abadlali abenzi lutho. Ngokucindezela izwe, izithakazelo zeqembu elilodwa labadlali bazoshukumisa izenzo zamanye amaqembu, "wanezela umbiko we-ActionAid International.

Abasimilayo emazweni ase-Afrika bazama ukuzihlela, basizwa yi-NGOs ezama ngandlela-thile umbono obala womphakathi jikelele kanye neziphathimandla ze-UN. Ukulwa okwamanje okwehliswayo ezimweni eziningi lapho ukucindezela kwendawo kucindezela futhi kubophe bonke labo abafuna ukubhekana nalokho okubizwa ngokuthi iphrojekthi yokutshalwa kwezimali, ukuthuthukiswa okuqhubekayo, ukuvuselelwa kwezomnotho, njll.

I-Afrika: Abezizwe baseAfrika banikezwa abantu abathintekayo

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