Kukhona iminyaka eyi-3000 eyedlule, abaseGibithe babenezixhumanisi zezohwebo neMelika neChina

I-Mummy of Ramses 2

Imikhuba ye-nicotine ne-cocaine ema-mummies aseGibhithe

Sise-1992, e-Egyptian Museum yaseMunich. Svetla Balabanova, toxicologist futhi sezifo uhlola mummy Henoubtaoui, a nompristikazi we xxi Dynasty (1085-950 BC). Bamangala, aluthole ukuthi, lokho kuhlolisisa kwembula iminonjana nicotine kanye ne-cocaine. Manje lezi zinto ezimbili zizokufikela kuphela ukwaziwa endulo ngemva uhambo uChristopher Columbus, eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-2500 kamuva! Ukuba khona kwabo emndenini waseGibhithe kungenakwenzeka ngokuphelele.
Ukuze kucace, uvuselela uchungechunge lwezingcwaningo ukuthi, ngokumelene nazo zonke izinkinga, ziqinisekisa kuqala: yi-nicotine ne-cocaine. Ekhuthaze ukuthi lokhu kuyiphutha lokuxhaphaza, uSvetla Balabanova uthumela amanye amasampula amasampula. Ukuhlaziywa okusha kuqinisekisa ukubambisana kwakhe. Okwamanje, ukungabaza akusekho okwenzekayo: Umama kaHenubtaoui ufihle imidwebo yezinto ezimbili ezingeke zivele eGibhithe kuze kube ngamakhulu amabili namashumi amabili kamuva, okungenani! Ukuze abelane ngokutholakala kwakhe okumangazayo, uSvetla Balabanova ushicilela isihloko, esheshayo siphinde sivuselele impikiswano. Ukusabela akukude ukuza. Uthola izincwadi eziningi ezisongelayo, ngisho nokuthukwa. Usola ukuthi uyadukisa ukuhlolwa. Kwa-archaeologists kanye nezazi-mlando, baya eMelika ngaphambi kokuba uColumbus ingenakwenzeka.
Izivivinyo ezintsha ziqinisekisa ukutholakala kwe-nikotine ne-cocaine uSvetla Balabanova ucabangela enye indlela. Mhlawumbe umama uye wangcoliswa ngaphandle. Qaphela, i-toxicologist yenza uhlobo olusha lokuhlolwa. Wasebenza emaphoyiseni njengomhloli wezokwelapha. Indlela engalungile ingasetshenziselwa ukunquma ukuthi ngabe oshonile empeleni uthathe izidakamizwa. Konke okudingekayo ukuhlaziya i-gangue yezinwele. Igcina izinkomba zama-molecule ahambisanayo izinyanga, noma unomphela lapho kwenzeka ukufa. Le nqubo, esevele ididekile izigebengu, ihlonishwa izinkantolo. Kanti futhi, umphumela omuhle ubonakala: izinwele ze-Henubtaoui zinezinyosi ze-nicotine ne-cocaine. Ukucabangela kokungcola kwangaphandle akusho.
Ngo-1976, umama kaRamses II ubuyiselwa eParis nguNkk Christiane Desroches Noblecourt, isazi se-Egyptologist of reputation. Lo mama uthola ngokuhlonishwa kwenhloko yombuso. Kodwa useFrance ukuba abuyele emuva, ngenxa yesimo sakhe esibi. Amasampuli athathwa ngaleso sikhathi. UDkt. Michelle Lescot we-Natural History Museum eParisngisho nophenyo ... futhi uthola ukuba khona kwama-crystal of character kagwayi. Manje, uRamses II wafa ngo-1213 BC Lokhu kubonakala kungenakwenzeka. Icala lenza kube nomzwelo omkhulu emibuthanweni ye-archaeological and historical. Kukhona ukukhala kwehlazo nokukhohlisa. Ngeke kube nokulandelelwa: inkolelo yokuxhumana phakathi kweMelika neMedithera ngaphansi kwe-Antiquity, kusukela ekubukeni kwezazi-mlando, ukuphazamiseka. Lokhu kuyiphutha, futhi "ukukhwabanisa" kukhishwa.
Nokho, encwadini yakhe ethi kaRamses II, indaba Yiqiniso, eyanyatheliswa ngo 1996 e Pygmalion, noChristiane Desroches Noblecourt wabhala: "Ngesikhathi mummification, esifubeni wagcwala izibulali-magciwane eziningi: abagqumisi wasebenzisa ngasekupheleni" hash "of amaqabunga Nicotiana L., wathola ebondeni kwangaphakathi kwesifuba, eduze ezifakwa-nicotine, ngokuqinisekile ababephila mummification, kodwa yinkinga ngoba lesi sitshalo ayikaziwa eGibhithe, semble-t-ke. "(RAMSES II, Indaba Yeqiniso, ikhasi 50).

Ugwayi wamaGibhithe waphuma kuphi?

Ugwayi waseGibhithe, ngukuphi ukusetshenziswa? Svetla Balabanova uyaqhubeka ucwaningo lakhe futhi walenza kwatholakala okuthile okumangalisayo: lemali nicotine ezitholakele matrix izinwele kufakazela ukusetshenziswa omkhulu, okwakufanele kungenze ngokuvamile sabulala umthengi. Ngaphandle kokuthi lo mthengi usufile kakade. I-ke iveza esinye isizathu: ugwayi wangena ohlelweni lokumisa umzimba.
Leli ligcinwa ligcinwe ngasese ngabapristi, kanti omunye akasazi imininingwane yalokhu kusebenza, futhi ikakhulukazi yiziphi izinto ezazisetshenziswa. Kodwa lokhu kutholakala kukhuluma nokusetshenziswa kogwayi eGibhithe kahle ngaphambi kweJC Kwavelaphi ugwayi wamaGibhithe? Kuyaziwa ukuthi abaseGibhithe basebenzisa izidakamizwa ezifana ne-mandrake, i-hemp, i-opium, ne-hashish, ikakhulukazi ngenxa yokwelapha kwabo. Kungenzeka ukuthi kwakukhona isitshalo esidala, eduze nogwayi, okwakubangele imiphumela efanayo futhi yaphela ngenxa yokusetshenziswa okuningi. Kungenzeka ukuthi lokhu kugwayi kwavela kwenye indawo. Kodwa kuphi?
Lesi sitshalo sizalwa eNingizimu Melika. Kodwa kunezinhlobo eziningi e-Oceania nasePolynesia. Ingabe lokhu kugwayi beza eGibhithe ngemva kokulandela imizila yokuhweba eMpumalanga Ekude, eNdiya, ePheresiya naseMesopotamiya? Lokhu kungasho ukuthi ngaleso sikhathi kukhona kakade izixhumanisi zokuhweba nala mazwe akude. Le mbono ihambisana nokuthi izintambo zika-silk zitholakala kumama waseGibhithe waseLuxor.
Le silika ingavela kuphela e-China. Futhi i-cocaine? Uma ubunzima begwayi bungathola ukuqala kokuphendula ngombono wesitshalo esingekho noma ukungenisa kweMpumalanga, lezi zichazo ezimbili azikwazi ukusebenza ku-cocaine. Kukhona izitshalo eziseduze ne-coca e-Afrika, kodwa akekho kuwo oqukethe izidakamizwa. Kuzokwelapha, ukutholakala kwesitshalo esiseduze ne-coca yase-Afrika e-Afrika, ezikhathini zasendulo, kuyinkohlakalo. Ngakho-ke, ngaba khona, ngaleso sikhathi, ubudlelwane phakathi kweMedithera namaMelika? Emaphethelweni aseBrazil, kutholakale izimbiza ezivela emagcekeni aseRoma.

Iziqu?

amasayithi Native American, kuhlanganise emathuneni, yabonisa zenzakalo ezinhle lwaholela esambulweni esishaqisayo. Ngakho, ngo-La Venta futhi San Lorenzo, kathi kwale mizi emibili esemqoka Olmec, sangomhla ngokulandelana ekhulwini lesishiyagalolunye kanye BC leminyaka weshumi nambili, bayizinhloko zezindlu giant kabani izici ngokugqamile Negroid. Ngakho-ke, ingabe ama-Afrika awazi iMelika ngaleso sikhathi? Kolunye uhlangothi kule mpi noma enye i-Atlantic, kwakuwumkhuba ukubeka amanani sarcophagi. I-shaouabti yaseGibhithe kwakudingeka yenze imisebenzi yasezindaweni zabafileyo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, asazi umsebenzi wezithombe zaseMelika. Enye nje kwaqondana: abaseFenike, efana kwaboMdabu baseMelika, zemali ilele noma ubuhlalu ka jade, ngakho ukuthi umufi kungase bakhokhele ukugibela wakhe endaweni yabafileyo.
Lezi zinhlanga ezintathu zimelelwe esitokisini ... eCampeche, ezweni lamaMeya, iveni elikhishwe ethuneni linikeza izigaba ezintathu zabalingiswa. Abanye banesikhumba sethusi, abanye banesikhumba esimhlophe, abanye banesikhumba esimnyama. AbakwaMelika baseMelika babengabheka kanjani le mibala emithathu yesikhumba ngaphandle kokuhlangana namadoda nalezi zici?
Ukuba khona kobudlelwane be-Transatlantic e-Antiquity kuzohlinzeka impendulo kwabaningi abathintekayo, futhi izifiso ukuthi ucwaningo olunzulu luyoqhutshwa kule ndlela. Uphikisa abavubukuli abaningi ngokuthola isimo sengqondo esisheshayo ngale ndaba. Kuqhubeka nakakhulu, ukufakazela ukuthi kwakukhona nokuhweba kwezamabhizinisi ngaphesheya kwePacific. Ubufakazi bulethwa ama-sweet potato, owokuzalwa waseMelika, atholakele e-China. Into efanayo yezinkukhu.
UMartin Bernal, isazi-mlando saseCornwell University, uphinde ucabange ukuthi ukucabangela kwe-transatlantic crossings kahle ngaphambi kokuba uColumbus akwazi. Kuye, intuthuko ayiyona impela, njengoba izazi-mlando eziningi zithi.
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