Abesifazane baseNder: AbaseSenegal abaphikisanayo ebugqilini

Abesifazane baseNder
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Lokhu kuyiqiniso elibuhlungu eliye lakhunjulwa abantu baseSenegal. Indaba yabesifazane baseNder, oLwesibili lwenyanga kaNovemba 1819, bazinikela ndawonye ukuze bangangeni ezandleni zabagqila bamaMoor.
Isenzo esihle sokumelana no-salute, ukuze ukuzethemba kwalaba besifazane kungangeni ekungeneni ...
Amakhosikazi ase-Afrika kanye ne-heroin ye-black diaspora

Ngaleso sikhathi, i-Walo yayiyisifundazwe esiphumelele esasemlonyeni woMfula iSenegal. Izakhamuzi zakhona, abalimi abanokuthula, behlala kwezohwebo nabalingani bezohwebo zaseTrans-Sahara kanye nabantu baseSaint-Louis, inhloko-dolobha yokuqala yaseSenegal, lapho bethengisa khona umkhiqizo wabo wezolimo. Umfula wahlukanisa uWalo wase Mauritania, lapho isizwe sakwaTrarzas sisungulwa khona. Kusukela kubo, umuntu akakaze azi ukuthi kusengaphambili yini ukuthi bazohamba njengamakhasimende ukushintshanisa izimpahla noma izitha zokuthutha ekuthunjweni. Noma kunjalo, kusukela ukufakwa kwamabutho aseFrance eSaint-Louis, amaMorors aqhubeka ekwandisa ukucindezela kwabo nge-Walo, abafuna ukuyibeka ngaphansi kwabo, ukuze bavimbele isifunda ukuba singangeni ngaphansi kokubusa European.

Ngalo nyaka, isikhathi eside sokuzola silandela ukuxabana okwenziwe ubudlova okwaba khona amaqhawe amaMoor kanye noToucouleurs bawo. Kwakusekuseni ngenkathi eyomile kanti iNder yayingenalutho. I Brack (iNkosi) yayiseSaint-Louis ukuba iphathwe ngesilonda esibi esitholwa ngesikhathi sokulwa kweNagag ngokumelene namaMoors ngokuqondile. Njengenjwayelo, izikhulu zombuso zazihamba futhi ingxenye enhle yamahhashi ayehamba nabo.

LeliLwesibili njengalezi zinsuku, amadoda ayejoyine amasimu ekuseni, i-daba (i-hoe yendabuko) ehlombe. Abanye base behambe bezingela, kanti iqembu lesithathu liye lathatha umzila womfula lapho izikebhe zabo zokudoba zazihambele khona. Kwaphela ama-ceddos ambalwa kuphela (amasosha) ayehlala egodini, futhi ayematasa ngokungcolisa ngokungapheli izibhamu zabo ezinkulu. Emzaneni ophethe izindlu ezizungezile ezinikezwa abesifazane, izingane kanye nabantu abadala, izithombe zokuphila kwansuku zonke zabusa. Ukuchichima, ngokuzungezile, kwaphindaphindiwe kakhulu ukugaya i-millet. Abesifazane, behamba ibhizinisi labo, bebizana ngaphakathi ngaphakathi. Abanye babematasa bezungeza ama-attics lapho izitshalo zokugcina zigcinwe khona. Abambalwa ekugcineni baxoxa ngokuthula emgodini, kanti abantwana abancane baqhubeka behamba eduze komuthi we-palaver lapho, kusihlwa, abadala basebenzisa izindaba zakudala.

Ngokungazelelwe ukukhala kwamabhomu kwaphazamisa ukuthula kwalendawo. Ngomzuzwana, ukuhleka kweqhwa, ama-pestles awa, ukukhishwa kwamandla kwaphela. Wonke amehlo aphendukela kulo wesifazane owayesanda kushaya umnyango we-complex, udonga lwamagatsha avulekile nodaka, okumele uvikele amadolobhana uma kwenzeka kuhlaselwa.

Isandla sokubamba i-calabash ngamanzi naphezu kokushicilelwa kokuqukethwe kwayo, lona wesifazane wagxeka, wesaba: "AmaMorors! AmaMoramu alapha! Bafika! Nganginqenqemeni lweGuers Lake futhi ngibona emaceleni. Ibutho lamaMoor! Abanawo neToucouleurs eholwa umholi Amar Ould Mokhtar! Bazowela umfula bese beza emzaneni wethu! "

Bonke abesifazane babememeza ngesikhathi esifanayo. Bayazi ukuthi yini abazoyilindela ... AmaMoors aseqalile ukuhlasela kwabo eWalo esitokisini phakathi kwezizwe. Inani elikhulu lamadoda, abesifazane nezingane lizoqothulwa emindenini yabo ukuze bathengiswe njengezigqila emindenini ecebile eNyakatho Afrika. Kwakuhlala njalo ngaleyo ndlela futhi uNder wayelahlekelwe amadodana namadodakazi amaningi.

Phakathi naleso sikhathi, amakhilomitha ambalwa ukusuka kude, athunyelwe ngaphesheya koMfula, abagibeli bamahhashi abavela ehlane bahlabelela ukuhambisa amahhashi abo ukuze bahlasele umuzi. Laba besifazane ngokushesha banquma ukuhlela ukumelana namasosha asele.

Ngokushesha, bathumela izingane ezingxenyeni ezizungezile ngaphansi kokuqondiswa kwabadala babo, ukufihla ezitsheni ezide zamathambo. Bese bagijimela ezindlini zabo ukuze baphume begqoke izibhulukwe zokugqoka nezigqoko, okomyeni, obaba, owomunye umzalwane; izinwele ezifihliwe ngaphansi kwezigqoko zabantu. Babenakho konke okungasetshenziselwa ukuzivikela: abasika izinsika, imikhonto, amaqembu kanye nezibhamu zangempela ababezobhekana nazo okokuqala.

Amazons ngosuku, laba besifazane balwa namandla okuphelelwa ithemba. Izinceku, abalimi, abahloniphekile, abancane, abadala, bahlanganyela, bahlakulela isibindi sabo kuphela, ekulweni okubi nesitha. Ezingoma zabo zokugubha ngenkumbulo yalaba besifazane abahlukile, ama-griots, ama-illustrators emakhasini omlando wase-Afrika, baqinisekise ukuthi ngalolo suku, babulala amaMoror angaphezu kwamakhulu amathathu. Nokho, le mpi yayingalingani. I-ceddos yabhujiswa ngokushesha. Izikhwama zegazi elibhobhozayo zanda emathunzini abomvu endaweni engcolile. Lapha naphakathi kwakukhona ukuthungula izidumbu nokulimala ukufa.

Ebhekene nokuzimisela okukhulu kwabasindile abathi, nakuba bevinjelwe, bebephezulu kunombolomu yesitha, umholi Amar Ould Mokhtar wethule amabutho akhe umyalelo wokusabalalisa. Abagibeli behlane bahlula izinkemba zabo ezinamahloni, bawalimaza ezinkalweni zabo, futhi bawela ulwandle futhi. Njengoba bekhathazekile ngokubhekwa ngabesifazane abalula, umholi wamaMoor wayazi ukuthi ngeke bakwazi ukumelana nesikhathi eside naphezu kwesibindi sabo. Engayifuni ukufaka engozini ekulimazeni "izimpahla", uhlele ukubuyela emuva kancane, ukuze abathathe bephila ukuze bathole intengo engcono ezimakethe zezigqila.

Abesifazane beWalo bazizwa belahlekile ... Ekupheleni kwamandla abo, behluleka ukusekela ukuhlasela kwesibili. La madoda ayephelile futhi isithunywa esasigijimela ukufuna usizo, ngokuqinisekile sizofika isikhathi eside kakhulu. Yonke ithemba lalingenalutho.

Abesifazane bakaNder! Amantombazane adingekayo eWalo! Hlela uphinde uvuselele ama-loincloths akho!
Yingaleso sikhathi lapho izwi liphakama ngenhla ukukhamuluka, ukukhala nokukhala kobuhlungu. KwakuyiMarka Dia, ummangalelwa wendlovukazi (u-queen) uFaty Yamar. Yena yedwa wayazi ukuthi uzithobela kanjani ukulalela abakwa-courtesans abanamandla futhi abahloniphekile ababezungezile indlovukazi. Ukuthatha ukusekelwa ngokumelene nesihlahla, ngoba yena ngokwakhe wayemele akhulelwe, waqala ukudlulisa i-harangue abangane bakhe:

"Abesifazane bakaNder! Amantombazane adingekayo eWalo! Hlela uphinde uvuselele ama-loincloths akho! Ake silungiselele ukufa! Abafazi baseNder, kumele sihlale njalo ngaphambi kwabahlaseli? Amadoda ethu asekude, azizwa ukukhala kwethu. Izingane zethu ziphephile. Allah uMninimandla onke uzokwazi ukuwagcina. Kodwa thina, besifazane abampofu, yini esingayenza ngokumelene nalabo bezitha ezingenabuso abazophinde baqale kabusha ukuhlaselwa? "

"Singazifihla kuphi ngaphandle kwabo besithola? Sizokuthunjwa njengabomama nabakhulukazi bethu ngaphambi kwethu. Sizodonsela ngaphesheya komfula futhi sithengiswe njengezigqila. Ingabe lokhu kuyisikhathi esifanelekayo kithi? "

Izinyembezi zayeka, izikhalazo zaba mnandi ... "Impendulo! Kodwa phendula esikhundleni sokuhlala lapho ukuze udele! Yini onayo emithanjeni yakho? Amanzi wegazi noma ama-marigot? Ingabe ukhetha ukutshela kamuva ngabazukulu bethu nenzalo yabo: Ingabe ugogo wakho ushiye umuzi njengabathunjwa? Noma: Ugogo wakho ube nesibindi kuze kube sekufeni! "

Ukufa! Ngalesi gama ukuzwakala okudumazayo kwazwakala. "Ukufa! Usho ukuthini uMarka Dia? "Yebo, dadewethu. Kumele sife njengabesifazane abakhululekile, singahlali njengezigqila. Kwangathi labo abavumelana nami bangilandela ebhokisini elikhulu loMkhandlu Wabahlakaniphileyo. Sizoyifaka konke futhi sizoyishisa ... Yumusi womlotha wethu ozokwamukela izitha zethu. Vuka odadewethu! Njengoba kungekho enye indlela yokuphuma, ake sife emadodeni afanelekayo eWalo! "...

Ilanga lase liphakeme phezulu esibhakabhakeni. Ukuthula okuthukuthele kwawela emzaneni. Thulisa ngokuphelelwa yithemba, labesifazane baqhubekela phambili behamba phambili, bebeka isikwele phakathi kwendawo. Akekho owaqunga isibindi sophikisana Mbarka Dia, funa echo wobugwala yabo babekhuphuka igeleze phezu ungene ngenzalo yabo. Ngesinye isikhathi wokugcina zibona nendawo abayijwayele nsuku zonke zabo, kungadala amehlo abo agcwala izinyembezi ku yenkukhu watatazela, izinqolobane ziphangwe drumsticks bashiya phansi, wagumbuqela amabhodwe, igqamuka amabhokisi futhi bonke labo eduze izidumbu waqala ukuvuvuka ngaphansi komphumela wokushisa ...

Khona-ke bahlanganiswa esigcawini esikhulu. Abanye omama abancane ababengafuni ukuhlukanisa nezinsana zabo, bacindezela amabele abo, ukuze bawabambe. Owokugcina ukungena ekamelweni wayekhulelwe futhi usondele ekupheleni. UMarka Dia wavala umnyango. On isenzo ethize, yena luvutha ithoshi futhi ngaphandle ethuthumela, wafafaza omunye mbumbulu amagatsha. Ngokushesha umlilo omkhulu waphuma. Ngaphakathi ebhokisini, ngokumelene abesifazane kusahlangene, clenched nomunye, bahlabelela, sengathi ukunikeza ekuqhumeni sokugcina isibindi, lullabies futhi iyakugwema ubudala kusuka ebuntwaneni kwase kuba imisebenzi yabo.

Izingoma zaqala ukuqhuma ... ngokushesha zashintshwa ngokuvumelana nokukhwehlela. Khona-ke unina, eqondiswa sokusinda isazela sakhe, ngamandla kwaphoqa umnyango kick futhi, ohlwithayo umoya, bagijima baphumela ngaphandle lapho equleka zobumba . Labo ababesaphila abahambanga. Abanye babo babe nesikhathi sokukhononda: "Myeke ashiye yedwa. Uzokutshela indaba yethu bese etshela izingane zethu ezizotshela amadodana azo ukuthi zizovela. Labo ababengakaze baxoshwe baqhubeka befuna izingoma zabo zokuncenga isibindi sokuhlala kulelikhuni le-incandescent. Futhi la mazwi aqhuma ... Ngokungazelelwe, ukuqhuma okwesabisa kwaholela ekuqotheni kwamalamangabi. Isakhiwo sophahla sasiphezu kwezidumbu. Kwakungokuthula okuthumele abantu abafika isikhathi eside ukusiza umuzi. Bonke abesifazane baseNder babhubha. Ngaphandle kokukodwa.

Abadala bathi ngaleso sikhathi, amafu amakhulu amnyama agubha isibhakabhaka futhi yonke into yaba mnyama. Njengokungathi ukufihla usizi lwalabababa, kulaba bafana namadoda abo, baqothulwa yithemba lokuthi akukho ukukhala kwabo noma izinyembezi zabo, noma ngisho nesikhathi, abangathandekayo. Kusukela ngalolo suku futhi isikhathi eside kakhulu, umkhosi owaziwa ngokuthi "iTalata Nder" wasungulwa emzaneni waseNder ukuhlonipha la maqhawe. Njalo ngonyaka, ngoLwesibili ngoNovemba, kwakunomsebenzi wokuphazamisa lolu suku lokukhunjulwa. Futhi amahora amaningi, amadoda nabesifazane, abancane nabadala, bahlala bevalelwe ngaphakathi kwemvume yabo ukuze bathandaze futhi bakhothamele umhlatshelo wabafazi bakaNder.

Namuhla, ngitsheliwe, leli dolobha elincane laseWalo linikezwa ekulahlweni nasekuqothulweni kwemvelo, njengememori. Asikho isikhumbuzo sokukhumbula ikhasi lomlando elibhalwa lapho. Ngabe abazali bethu abafanelekayo baseNder babengenakufanelekela ngaphezu kokunganakwa ngemva kwalesi sifundo esihle sokuqhaqhazela abasishiyile?

SOURCE: Indlovukazi yase-Afrika ne-heroin ye-Black Diaspora Sylvia Serbin.

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