Amanxeba ayisishiyagalombili e-Afrika

Amanxeba ayisishiyagalombili e-Afrika
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I-Afrika igubha iminyaka engama-50 yokuzulazula yaqala ngokubulawa kukaPatrice Lumumba futhi kwavalwa isikhashana no-El Gueddafi. I-Colossus enezinyawo zobumba, i-Afrika yizwe lezindabuko, iyizwekazi elixhuma ngokwentando yabantu nge-1 billion lapho abacishe babe yizigidi ezingama-600 abangenawo ugesi. Masikhumbule ukuthi umSomalia udla amandla ngonyaka ngonyaka lokho kudla kwaseMelika ngesonto. Kodwa-ke, i-Afrika igcwele ingcebo, kepha njengoba uSarkozy ebhala, "usizi lwayo ukuthi ayikakabi phansi emlandweni." Akekho noHegel noVictor Hugo abazidumisa ngesikhathi esidlule sase-Afrika. Ngokuphambene nalokho, banikeze isisekelo emcabangweni wezinhlanga eziphakeme kanye nomsebenzi wempucuko othandekayo kuJules Ferry. Okungcono kakhulu, engqungqutheleni yaseBerlin e1885, umpristi wesifunda sase-Afrika wagunyaza iNkosi yamaBelgians ukuba inendawo yayo, iCongo yamanje, ezinhlangothini zombili zomfula, esehlukaniswe phakathi; ama-belligerents asizwa amandla angaphandle ahehwa ngumcebo. Sizobala ngokulandelayo amanxeba ayisishiyagalombili okulimaza.

Indlala ne-AIDS

Akunakwenzeka ukuthi ubhale bonke ububi base-Afrika, uma kungenjalo ukusho kuqala, okubaluleke kakhulu. Indlala nengculazi. Ukuze indlala, eseyindlala, amashumi ezinkulungwane afa unyaka nonyaka ngenxa yendlala nokungondleki. Masikhumbule ukuthi iningi le-4 × 4 le-biofuel esekwe ummbila ingondla iSahelian unyaka, Ngokuqondene nengculaza, cishe iminyaka engamashumi amabili ibhala uClaire Brisset, ingculaza ibhekwe njengesifo esibulalayo , ngaphandle kokuphunyuka. (...) Kepha le masw panorama yomhlaba wonke igadla ngokungalingani; ukungalingani kwezindawo, ngoba zithinta ikakhulukazi amazwe athile ezwekazi elimnyama, kanye ne-generational, ngoba zithinta kakhulu izingane zakule mazwe afanayo, ngaphandle kwenqubekela phambili ebonwe kwenye indawo. Kuse-Afrika ekhuluma isiFulentshi lapho impi yokulwa nengculazi ibuyela emuva. (...) Ngokusho kuka Mnu. (..) Udlame luphinde futhi lugqugquzele ukusakazeka kwaleli gciwane: ukuqubuka kwezombango, izimpi, udlame olubhekiswe kwabesifazane ... Manje kuyadingeka, eqinisweni, ukubheka impi yokulwa nengculazi njengengxenye yomzabalazo wamalungelo abantu, futhi akusekho njengendaba yezempilo yomphakathi. "(1)

Umcebo wamaminerali kanye nokuthatha umhlaba.

Sisebenzelane nomnikelo wangaphambilini wokubamba umhlaba. aziwayo kakade ngokuthokoza ukuphangwa izinto zokusetshenziswa kwenhlabathi futhi asendaweni Afrika, okubalwa owezolimo kanye izinsimbi ezingavamile ezifana coltran ezisetshenziswa nobuchwepheshe bezokuxhumana (amakhompyutha, omakhalekhukhwini ...). Bayidayise coltran kayikhulu wentengo ngokusebenzisa labalamuli ngaphandle komthetho noma kokholo zamazwe ngamazwe ngokuqhubekayo kakhulu Western kule awukudla ezintsha obukhulu nakakhulu kunomuzi amakheli zomlando lezi ukuphucula ezweni ukunqoba kwevangeli sezizwe zakwa ngowezizwe ezazingaphansi kumele kuthinteke yiVangeli egameni elithi "ukubusa kwama-Cs amathathu". UbuKristu, i-Commerce, iColonization. (...) washo yokulima e-Africa lwenziwa States angaphandle kanye lezizwe ezihlukahlukene yayisiboshwe kaningi wabalahla, ikakhulukazi ngo-February 2011 e Dakar eWorld Social Forum, NGO-ActionAid. (2)

Eminyakeni engamashumi ayisihlanu kamuva, i-Afrika isaphumelela. Izwekazi lazo zonke izinhlekelele, kokubili kwemvelo, kodwa ikakhulukazi ngenxa yendoda. Ngokudabukisayo, siyaqhubeka simemezela ingcebo yaleli zwe esimweni esiye sabonakala ngokusobala kwezinto zokusetshenziswa kwazo zonke izinhlobo. Kodwa hhayi nje kuphela, futhi amandla kanye namandla angaphambili asekoloni (Great Britain, France, nasezingeni eliphansi, ePortugal) afuni ukuyeka ukuphangwa kwabo. Amazwe amasha hhayi okungenani anesithakazelo, okushiwo yi-United States, okudingekayo kufaka phakathi ukubeka umyalo - iAfrikaom - ukuphatha i-Afrika kusuka ezisekelweni zasekhaya, kodwa naseChina amasu okunciphisa amandla, i-India neJapane okuthuthukiswa kwayo kuseduze namabhiliyoni ayizigidi zamaRandi. Lokhu kuthiwa, izinga lokuthuthukiswa kosizo olubekwe ku-2% we-GDP ngamazwe athuthukile akakaze atholakale. Ukwengeza, izwe ngalinye liyakwenza lokhu kusize ekuthengeni okukhethekile kuleli lizwe ngenkathi kuhlanganiswa izipho ezahlukene ngaphansi kwalesi sikhathi.

Sifunda kulokhu okushiwo ukuthi iJapane ifuna "ingalo ehlomile" yaseFrance ukuvula izimakethe e-Afrika: "(...) iFrance izoletha kule ndawo ubuchwepheshe bayo nezinsiza ekulwa nobuphekula. Ukubanjwa kuka-Amenas, okwakushiwo abahlali baseJapane, kufike ngempela ukukhumbuza izinkampani zaseJapane ngezizathu zokwehluleka kwazo ukusetha kuleli zwekazi. "IFrance neJapane banezinhloso ezivamile e-Afrika: ukuthi leli zwekazi lizinzile futhi libe umlingani wezomnotho onokwethenjelwa, onikwe ukuphathwa okuhle, ukuhlaziywa (...). AmaFrench anolwazi emhlabathini futhi ahlangene kahle emiphakathini yase-Afrika emazweni athile akhuluma isiFulentshi. I-France iyinamandla amakhulu kule ndawo, inezimboni endaweni kanye nezisekelo zempi. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, iJapane ayinolwazi oluncane ngamaqembu afana ne-Aqmi [Al Qaeda e-Islamic Maghreb]. "(3)

Ukwenqatshwa kweminye imibuso yezinkinga

Ngomusa wakhe, u-Aimé Césaire wayengomunye wabokuqala, uma kungenjalo owokuqala, ukukhuluma nge-postindependence e-Afrika. Wabhala ngokukhethekile: "Umzabalazo wokuzimela uyingqayizivele, ukuzimela kutholakale yilezi zinkinga." "Impumelelo enkulu yezitha zase-Afrika, yabhala, uFrantz Fanon, ukulimaza abantu base-Afrika ngokwabo. "Ukushintshaniswa kwenziwa eNingizimu Afrika, kungaba ukuqhuma noma ukugula. Ngempela, enye yezinhlekelele ezinkulu ze-Afrika nayo ingenxa yabaholi abaqhubekisela phambili ukuhleleka kwekoloni ukuze bazuze, ngenkathi bethatha ukuqapha okuhlakaniphile kokubizwa ngamakhosi abo zangaphambili. Amandla wokubamba amaningana avame ukudlula iminyaka eyishumi. Lapho amandla enamandla edlula isandla, kungenxa yomndeni wabo. Yindlela entsha yokugqilazwa kude lapho i-Afrika isebenza kwabanye kodwa ayikwazi ukuzondla. Ingabe kungaba yisiqalekiso?

Ukuqhubekela phambili kwe-Western

Ake sithi! Emazweni aseNtshonalanga, ngisho emazweni okutjha okubuya bangayiboni into embi ukuba recolonize, akude, amazwe lasendulo, okubaluleke ukuthi ukuphanga nakho ovunyelwe futhi zonke iziqubulo kwamalungelo wobuntu kuphela uthuli e yeux.Hervé Amani isazi sezokuhlalisana kwabantu, uchaza ngamashwa of Africa ngenxa neocolonialism "umklamo omkhulu izithakazelo lingabacindezeli yokuqinisa ingcindezelo futhi neocolonialism futhi siyazikhohlisa ngendlela ezinesihluku kakhulu, uma kufanele sicabange ukuthi izenzo zaseNtshonalanga zihlukile futhi azihambisani, "uNkrumah wayebikezele. (...) N'Krumah ayizange ilandelwe yontanga yakhe. Ngenxa yengozi yabantu base-Afrika, izinhloko zombuso ezinemibono yabo yayikude isikhathi eside, bashumayela ubuzwe obuncane futhi balandela amademoni okuhlukana. (4)

"Esikhathini 2013 noma engamashumi amahlanu ngemva kwenkulumo Nkrumah sika, i-African Union namanje ekwenziweni." Herve Amani ke beka ikhathalogi macabre udlame olubhekiswe Afrika, "Olympio eTogo Yaméogo e Upper Volta, U-Ahomadégbé eBenin, uHamani Diori eNiger, u-Modibo Kéïta (isithombe) e-Mali ... ahlaselwa; USankara wabulawa ... Ubugebengu babo, ngemuva kwe-N'Krumah, balwela isithakazelo sezwe labo, isithunzi se-Afrika. UColonel Gaddafi wayengumsebenzi onzima wokuqaliswa kwe-African Union. Uqale ukukhokhelwa kwemisebenzi emikhulu njengoba kuphakanyiswe yi-N'Krumah. Umhlahlandlela wabulawa ngamandla aseNtshonalanga ngezinhloso zokungafuni ukuhlaselwa kwabantu. Phakathi kwabaholi besikhathi abaphikisa umoya we-African Unity of N'Krumah, kukhona uMongameli Houphouet-Boigny waseCôte d'Ivoire. Iqiniso. Ukuphila kwesikhathi eside ngokuqinisekile kubangelwa ukugqilazwa kwamandla ekoloni. (...) »(i-4)

"Uma sijabule ngalokho okwenzekile kuGaddafi, uGbagbo, N'Krumah, senza iphutha lokukhohlisa. I-parachuting ibutho lempi le-valets likhonza kuphela izithakazelo zamandla okulondeka kanye ne-plutocracy. Umbhali uphetha ngokuthi: "I-Afrika kumele ihlangane ngoba ukuguquguquka kwethu kwezomnotho kudinga ukuphela kokubusa koloniyali; kodwa umbuso ngamunye ngeke ube namandla okulwa nama-imperialists. Ake sibuyele: "... Sizozikhohlisa ngendlela enonya kunazo zonke, uma sicabanga ukuthi izenzo zaseNtshonalanga zihlukile futhi azihambisani," uNkrumah wayebikezele (4).

Kulesi siyalo, amabutho amabili esheshayo asetshenziswa ngabaseNtshonalanga ahlose ukusungula isimo se-quo. Ngesikhathi ukuphakama France-Afrika, kusho uMengameli French uFrancois Hollande ababemenyelwe zerda, waxwayisa ngokuthi "kuba Afrika, kusasa, uyoqinisekisa ukulondeka zaleli zwekazi", nakuba "France uyohlale eduze kwaso ". (4)

Inkohlakalo

Phakathi kwe-1980 ne-2009, amaRandi ayi-1 350 wezigidi zezimali ezingekho emthethweni avela e-Afrika athunyelwe kwamanye amazwe. Umbiko we-ADB, eNyakatho ye-Afrika bezingaphansi bhiliyoni 415,6 e Ukudluliselwa obungemthetho phakathi nalesi sikhathi, imiphumela imali zokukhwabanisa othintekayo esifundeni zaseNyakatho Afrika, ngokuyinhloko yaseGibithe, esilandelwa e yesibili isikhundla se-Algeria futhi ekugcineni eLibya. Imali ivame ukudluliselwa ngobuqili ezindaweni zokukhokha intela, kodwa futhi emazweni amaningi aseYurophu, e-United States nakwezinye izingxenye zomhlaba. "Ukuhamba kwezinsiza ezivela e-Afrika eminyakeni engamashumi amathathu edlule, mayelana ne-GDP yamanje e-Afrika, kubambe iqhaza lokuthunjwa kwezwekazi," kusho uMthuli Ncube, i-AfDB Chief Economist noVice. "Ukuhlakanipha okuvamile kuye kwaba njalo ukuthi iWest ingenisa imali e-Afrika ngokusebenzisa usizo lwangaphandle nakweminye imikhakha yangasese yezimali, ngaphandle kokuthola okuningi ngokubuyisela. Umbiko wethu uphindaphinda ingxabano yokuthi i-Afrika ibe umklomelo wenarha emhlabeni wonke amashumi eminyaka, "kusho uRaymond Baker, umqondisi we-GFI Research and Defense Centre yase-Washington. (; .. ..) (5)

Isibonelo, inkohlakalo e-Algeria isibe isayensi eqondile. Uma sisaba ngokweqile sibheka engozini. Siye waqonda ekwindla guys ubhontshisi kodwa senhlanzi enkulu efana amahlazo okubangelwa "ikhomishini" ikhokhwe yizinkampani ezisebenza e-Algeria, kokuqeda badangalise Algeria engibathandayo kokubusa ombaxambili kakhulu kunanini ngaphambili izindaba.

Ukuntuleka kombono wekusasa

Lapho sibhekene nazo zonke lezi zihlamba, sicabanga ukuthi i-Afrika yenzani? Ingabe ihlanganisa ukuphepha kokudla? Ngenxa yomuthi wekhwalithi? Ingabe itadisha ukuthuthukiswa okungapheli? Ingabe ifuna ukuba ishiywe ngokuthula ngokudla amabelligerents ngezikhali noma ngokusekela abahlukumezi abenqaba ukunye? Akekho kulokhu, unquma ukusetha amandla okusebenza okusheshayo !! ngezikhali Western ukuze nje uqhubeka omashiqela awakholelwa futhi umusho Chirac kuba nenjongo lapho lithi: "Kumelwe Sisekela kobushiqela, kungenjalo babengeke ukhetho" ishiwoyo yini umphumela , into ebalulekile ukuthi bayimi.

Ukunciphisa kunezinsuku ezinhle phambi kwabo. I-Afrika "i-colossus enenkemba encane" ifuna ukuba nesenzo sayo esisheshayo esimweni seFrance. Masikhumbule ukucaciswa kwamazwe aseNtshonalanga Afrika abuthana ngaphakathi kwezinto eziphilayo zeCdao ekukhulumeni egameni laseFrance abengameli baka-operetta. "Abaholi base-Afrika abahlangana e-Addis Ababa banqume ukudala amandla okuphendula ngokushesha ukuze bangenele empini e-Afrika," kusho uMengameli we-AU wamanje. "(6)

Ukuhleka usulu akubulali. Bangabalindi bomhlaba - umphumela wenqubomgomo yezindiza phambili, yokuzikhukhumeza ngamandla - abafa!

Izingxabano zesikhathi esizayo

Kuyiqiniso phakathi nale minyaka engamashumi ayisihlanu i-Afrika ayizange ikwazi ukuthula ngenxa yokuphazanyiswa kwamandla angaphambili okwehluleka kwezinto ezibonakalayo ezenziwa yi-Afrika nokubonakala kwabadlali abasha abenza I-Afrika iphakamisa ukuthi ayikwazi ukwenqaba. Phakathi ezimpini esizayo, ikakhulukazi ngenxa nokuzula yokushintsha kwesimo sezulu okuyiwona Afrika ayinakho umbukiso nokuthi ngemva ababaleki zezombusazwe nemiphumela yezimpi obuphakade, ngemva ababaleki kwezomnotho umphumela kubhubhane sendawo, thina uzoba nababaleki bezulu abengeziwe abazobe bekhona lapho okunye okuzoqhubeka nokufa kancane.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, futhi ngenxa yesimo senhlalo, ukumelela kwemithombo yamanzi ezindaweni ezithile. Impi elandelayo yamanzi igxila emkhathini njengoba kuboniswa yizingxabano ezingezansi ezungeze amanzi eNayile

"I-Ethiopia, iKenya, i-Uganda, i-Burundi, i-Rwanda neTanzania kusukela ngo-2010, abasayine isivumelwano esisha se-Nile. Lo mbhalo ufaka umbuzo wesivumelwano sangaphambilini esivela ku-1929, ulungiswe ku-1959 yi-Egypt ne-Sudan. Lesi sabelo sokuqala sokwabelana sanikeza isabelo sezingonyama eGibhithe naseSudan, okuyinto eyedwa eyayijabulela mayelana ne-90% yamanzi eNayile. (...) I-Ethiopia yaqala ngo-Ephreli 2011 indawo yokwakhiwa kweDamu layo elikhulu iMillennium. Lingakhiqiza ngaphezu kwe-5000 megawatts, ibambe cishe i-63 billion m3 yamanzi futhi ibe yidamu lokuqala e-Afrika. (...) »(i-7)

Izindaba zakamuva ukuthi uMnyango Wezangaphandle WaseGibhithe usebizele ummeli waseTopiya, kanti akukho isivumelwano esifinyelele phakathi kweGibithe, Ethiopia neSudan ekulawuleni amanzi eNayile. Umsebenzi uqale ngoLwesibili i-28 Meyi. Idamu lizobiza ama-3,2 amaminithi. Ukwakhiwa kwalo kudinga ukomisa nokuphambana nombhede wemvelo weBlue Nile. Ezikhathini eziningana kakade, iGibhithe ne-Etiyopiya basondele ekubhekaneni ngokuqondile ngenxa yalolu daba olubalulekile kula mazwe womabili. (8)

Ingabe i-ICC i-racist? potentates Afrika zikhathazekile: Besaba afa The Hague International Criminal Court (ICC) is uqhuba "inhlobo ekuzingeleni ngokobuhlanga" ngokungenzi ukuba ayeke ukuphishekela lowo Afrika, kusho usihlalo we-African Union ( UA), uNdunankulu waseTopiya u-Hailemariam Desalegn. Lawa mazwe afanayo, iningi lawo asemukele isivumelwano seRome, cabanga ukuthi kukhona ubuhlanga nokuthi akuyona ukuphathwa kwabo okulimazayo okukhulunywe ngakho. Kuyiqiniso ukuthi lesi sikhungo esasungulwa amazwe aseNtshonalanga ukuphoqa umyalo, umyalelo wabo ukujezisa labo abangafanelanga isikhunta egameni lamalungelo abantu, okuzothatha usuku esizokwenza ngalo kusinikeza incazelo jikelele ... isikhumbuzo sokuthi ndaba, i-United States, ayikatholakali kuze wasayina eRoma iSivumelwano liqine ICC ngoba nathi uMthethosisekelo unqabela baseMelika yahlulelwe kwamanye amazwe

Mayelana ne-Algeria, idlala umphathi, ikhansele izigidi ezingu-900 ukuze ikwazi ukuzibophezela ngokugcwele ekuthuthukisweni kwezomnotho nezenhlalakahle yezwekazi. Kuzoqondwa, yi-barrel ye-Danaides ngokungezelela ukungaqiniseki kwala mazwe okwenza ukuthi ngeke kube khona ukubuyiselwa kokutshala izimali noma kwezombangazwe noma ezomnotho. With 900 izigidi zamaRandi. Yizikhungo zezinga eliphezulu ze-10 ....

UProfesa Chems Eddine Chitour

I-Polytechnic School enp-edu.dz

1. Claire Brisset http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2013/06/BRISSET/49201

2. Chems Eddine Chitour: http://www.legrandsoir.info/l-afrique-nourrit-les-autres-le-grabbing-des-terres.html

3. Emilie Guyonnet, http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2013/06/GUYONNET/49208

4. Hervé Amani http://www.legrandsoir.info/50e-anniversaire-de-l-ua-l-unite-africaine-a-l-epreuve-des-africains.html 29 mai 2013

5. UZhor Hadjam Ukudluliswa kwemali engekho emthethweni eNyakatho Afrika. I-Algeria ilandela i-Egypt El Watan 30 05 2013.

6. I-Aniss Z. I-African Union Summit emazweni ase-Addis Ababa afuna ukusabela okusheshayo kwe-African El Watan i-28.05.2013

7. Gaëlle Laleix http://www.slateafrique.com/2161/tensions-eau-bassin-du-nil 29 05 2011

8. http://www.econostrum.info/Le-Nil-provoque-des-tensions-entre-l-Egypte-et-lEthiopie_a14783.html

SOURCE: http://www.mondialisation.ca/les-huit-plaies-de-lafrique-cinquante-ans-derrance/5337447

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