Biography of Malcolm X

UMalik al-Shabazz uthi uMalcolm X
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UMalcolm X wazalelwa uMalcolm Little i-19 May 1925 e-Omaha, eNebraska. Umama wakhe, uLouise Norton Little, wayengumama omatasa omatasa onabantwana abayisishiyagalombili emndenini. Uyise, u-Earl Little, wayengumfundisi ongumfundisi, uMfundisi waseBaptisti nomsizi oqotho weMholi weNational Nationalist uMarcus Garvey. Earl zokulwa amalungelo civil utshelwa izinsongo zokufa ezimhlophe supremacist inhlangano Black Legion, ephoqa umndeni ukuze ubeke endaweni kabili ngaphambi lokuzalwa Malcolm lesine.
Kungakhathaliseki ukuthi omncane emzamweni wakhe wokugwema iLegion, e-1929, ikhaya labo laseLansing, eMichigan lashiswa phansi. Eminyakeni emibili kamuva, isidumbu sika-Earl sitholakale sibhekene namathrekhi e-trolleybus edolobheni. Amaphoyisa athi izigameko ezimbili ziyizigameko, kodwa abambalwa babengazi ukuthi amalungu e-Black Legion ayengumthwalo wemfanelo. ULouise wahlukunyezwa ngokomzwelo eminyakeni embalwa ngemva kokushona komyeni wakhe futhi wazinikela esiteshini sengqondo. Izingane zakhe zahlukaniswa phakathi kwezindlu ezahlukene nezintandane.

zikhule

UMalcolm wayengumfundi ohlakaniphile, ogxile. Ungumfundi ophakeme esikoleni esiphakeme esikoleni esiphakeme esikoleni sakhe. Kodwa-ke, lapho uthisha oyintandokazi etshela uMalcolm iphupho lakhe lokuba ngummeli "kwakungekho umgomo ongokoqobo we-nigger," uMalcolm walahlekelwa isithakazelo esikoleni. Washiya, wachitha isikhathi esithile eBoston, eMassachusetts esebenza imisebenzi engavamile, waya eHarlem, eNew York, lapho enza khona amacala amancane. Ku-1942, uMalcolm uye wahlela izindandatho ezihlukahlukene zezinambuzane, ubufebe nokugembula.
UMalcolm nesoka lakhe, uMalcolm "Omfushane" uJarvis, babuyele eBoston. Ku-1946, baboshwa futhi bavalelwa ngamacala okugqekeza, kanti uMalcolm ugwetshwe iminyaka engu-10 ejele. (Wakhululwa nge-parole ngemuva kokukhonza iminyaka eyisikhombisa.) Ekhumbula izinsuku zakhe esikoleni, wasebenzisa isikhathi sokuqhubeka nemfundo yakhe. Kwakukhona phakathi nalesi sikhathi sokuzikhanyisa ukuthi uMalcolm, uMfoweth 'uReginald, wavakashela futhi wakhuluma ngokuguqulwa kwakhe kwamuva kwinkolo yamaSulumane. UReginald wayenhlangano yenkolo yeSizwe samaSulumane (i-NOI).

Ethakazelisayo, uMalcolm waqala ukutadisha izimfundiso zomholi we-NOI u-Eliya Muhammad. UMuhammad wafundisa ukuthi umphakathi omhlophe ubelokhu usebenza ngenkuthalo ukugcina ama-Afrika aseMelika anesibopho sokufeza impumelelo yezopolitiki, ezobucucu nezenhlalakahle. Phakathi kweminye imigomo, i-AI ilwela izwe labo, lihlukaniswe nabanye abahlala abamhlophe. Ngu ngesikhathi ngoshwele ngo 1952, uMalcolm kwaba umlandeli azinikele nge igama elisha "X" (Wathi "omncane" igama senceku futhi wakhetha "X" ukuze abonise elahlekile igama lakhe zamaKhosi. )
Umholi ozelwe

Ehlakaniphile futhi ehlakaniphile, uMalcolm wamiswa njengomkhulumeli kanye nokhulumela iNational of Islam. U-Eliya Muhammad uphinde wamangalela ukusekela imikhosi emisha eDetroit, eMichigan naseHarlem, eNew York. UMalcolm wasebenzisa amakholomu wephephandaba, kanye nomsakazo kanye nethelevishini ukuxhumana nomyalezo we-NOI kuwo wonke ama-United States. Ukukhathazeka kwakhe, ukuguqulwa kwamandla nokuqina kwakhe kwakha inani elithakazelisayo lamalungu amasha. U-Malcolm ukhulunywa kakhulu ngokubaluleka kwe-500 ku-1952 kuya ku-30.000 ku-1963.

Izixuku nezingxabano ezizungeze uMalcolm zenza umshini wezindaba. Ubekwe kusikhangiso esikhethekile seviki esisodwa nge-Mike Wallace ku-1959, esibizwa ngokuthi "Inzondo Yokukhiqiza Inzondo." Lolu hlelo luhlola izinto eziyisisekelo ze-NIO, futhi lulandele ukuvela kukaMalcolm njengomunye wabaholi bakhe abaluleke kakhulu. Emva kwalokhu okhethekile, uMalcolm wabhekana neqiniso elingathandeki ukuthi udumo lwakhe lwaluvelele lokho kumeluleki wakhe u-Eliya Muhammad.

Ukuhlukunyezwa kobuhlanga kwanda eminyakeni ye-1960. Ngaphandle kwezindaba, ubuntu bukaMalcolm obunamandla bebukhangele uhulumeni. Njengoba ilungu NOI laqhubeka landa, FBI ejenti ngesinyenyela inhlangano (ngisho isinyathelo sibe ngumqaphi Malcolm umzimba) futhi ibekwe ngasese izimbungulu, wiretaps, amakhamera nezinye izinto ukubhekwa ukuqapha emisebenzini yaleli qembu .

Isivivinyo sokholo

UMalcolm Faith wabhekana nephupho elibi ekuphakameni kwamalungelo omphakathi ku-1963. Ufunde ukuthi umeluleki wakhe kanye nomholi, uElijah Muhammad, bebeyimfihlo ukuba babe nobuhlobo nabesifazane abangaphansi kweyisithupha ngaphakathi kwesizwe samaSulumane. Njengokuba lokho kwakungeke kwanele, uMalcolm wathola ukuthi ezinye zalezi zingxoxo zaholela ezinganeni.
Njengoba efika eNew, uMalcolm wayilandele ngokuqinile izimfundiso zikaMuhammad - owafaka ukuhlala engashadile kuze kube umshado wakhe noBetty Shabazz ku-1958. UMalcolm wenqaba isicelo sikaMuhammad sokusiza ukumboza amacala alandelayo nezingane. Wabuhlungu kakhulu ngenxa yokudumala kukaMuhammad, owabheka umprofethi ophilayo. UMalcolm naye wazizwa enecala ngabantu abaningi abaholele ukujoyina i-NOI, lapho ezwa khona manje ukuthi inhlangano yenkohliso eyakhiwe kakhulu kakhulu ingayinakwa.

Ngemva nje kokuthola kwakhe okuthuthumayo, uMalcolm wathola ukugxekwa ngokuphawula kwakhe mayelana nokubulawa kukaMongameli John F. Kennedy. "[Kennedy] akalindele ukuthi izinkukhu ziphenduke ngokushesha," kusho uMalcolm. Emva kwalesi sitatimende, u-Eliya Muhammad "uthule" uMalcolm ngezinsuku ezingu-90. UMalcolm, nokho, ube esolwa ukuthi angathuli ngesinye isizathu. Ngo-March 1964 Malcolm ekupheleni kobudlelwane bakhe ne-NOI. Ayikwazi ukubheka ngaphandle kokukhohlisa u-Muhammad, uMalcolm unquma ukuthola inhlangano yakhe yenkolo, i-Muslim Mosque, Inc.

Ukuqwashisa okusha

Ngawo lowo nyaka, uMalcolm waya enyangeni eya eMecca, eSaudi Arabia. Uhambo lwavezwa ukuthi lushintshe impilo. Ngokokuqala ngqa, uMalcolm wabelane ngemicabango yakhe nezinkolelo ezivela emasikweni ahlukahlukene, futhi wathola impendulo yokuba yinto enhle kakhulu. Lapho ebuya, uMalcolm uthe wayehlangane "nezinwele ezibomvu, amadoda angama-blue-eye engangiwabiza abafowethu. Wabuyela e-United States ngombono omusha wokuhlanganiswa nethemba elisha lekusasa. Ngalesi sikhathi, lapho uMalcolm ekhuluma, esikhundleni sokushumayela nje kwabase-Afrika baseMelika, waba nomyalezo kuzo zonke izinhlanga.
Ngemuva kokuba uMalcolm eshiye isikhundla sakhe kuSizwe samaSulumane futhi walahla u-Eliya Muhammad, ubudlelwane phakathi kwalaba bobabili bube bukhulu kakhulu. Abameli be-FBI abasebenza ngaphansi kwe-NOI izikhulu ezixwayise ukuthi uMalcolm ubekwe uphawu lokubulawa. (Isikhulu sezambatho sagwetshwa nokusiza ukutshala ibhomu emotweni kaMalcolm).
Ngemuva kwemizamo ephindaphindiwe empilweni yakhe, uMalcolm wayengavamile ukuhamba nomaphi ngaphandle kwabaqaphi. I-14 February 1965, ikhaya lapho uMalcolm, uBetty namadodakazi abo amane ayehlala khona e-East Elmhurst, eNew York bashiswa. Ngenhlanhla, lo mndeni wasinda ekulimazeni ngokomzimba.

Ifa le- "X"

Ngemva kwesonto, izitha zikaMalcolm zaphumelela emzamweni wazo ononya. Ngesikhathi ikheli e-Audubon Manhattan Ballroom ngoFebhuwari 21 ngosuku, abathathu abashayeli bebhomu baphuthuma isimo se-1965 Malcolm. Badutshulwa i-15 eseduze. U-39 oneminyaka engu-17 ubudala ukhulume ngesikhathi efika esibhedlela sase-Columbia New York Presbyterian.

abantu neshumi nanhlanu ukuwo emngcwabeni Malcolm sika in Harlem ngoFebhuwari 27 1965, iSonto Faith Temple kaNkulunkulu kuKristu (manje Ingane Memorial Temple Church of God kuKristu). Ngemuva kwalo mkhosi, abafowethu bathatha amafosholo kude nama-gravediggers abalindile futhi bamngcwaba uMalcolm ngokwabo.

Kamuva ngalolo nyaka, uBetty wazala amadodakazi abo amabili.

Abashonile baseMalcolm, uTalmadge Hayer, uNorman 3X Butler noTomas 15X Johnson baboshwe ngokubulala ngo-1 ku-March 1966. La madoda amathathu ayengamalungu esizwe samaSulumane.

Ifa likaMalcolm X liye laguqukela ngezizukulwane njengezindaba zamadokhumenti, izincwadi, nama-movie amaningi. A kabusha isithakazelo esikhulu kwenzeka ngo 1992 lapho umqondisi Spike Lee wakhulula ifilimu akukhuthazwa uMalcolm X Le filimu wathola Oscar kuqokwe umlingisi engcono (Denzel Washington) kanye Kuhle zokugqoka Design. UMalcolm X wangcwatshwa eMathuneni kaFerncliff eHartsdale, eNew York.

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