Inkulumo kaThabo Mbeki ku-2003 e-UNESCO

UThabo Mbeki
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Njengoba uHenry Louis Gates Jr ebhala "e-Afrika, ubuciko bezwekazi" Akunakwenzeka ukuhlukanisa ukwesaba kuka Picasso okuhlobene nefuthe lase-Afrika ngobuciko bakhe bokumesaba iYurophu ukuxhunyaniswa nobuciko obumnyama, ubudlelwane bokuzijabulisa kanye nezwekazi lonke elimelelwa njengendawo yokuqala yeYurophu eyayingekho futhi engafuni ukuba, okungenani kusukela ekupheleni koKuvuselelwa futhi Iminyaka Eyinkulungwane Yokukhanyisa. Sekuyiminyaka eminyaka, iWest ibhekene neAfrika, futhi ikakhulukazi e-Afrika engaphansi kweSahara, njengomthombo wempahla engabizi kanye nemisebenzi. Lokhu kuhumusha ekuthumeni ingcebo ngaphandle kwezwekazi kunokulwandisa. Uma ingcebo ifakwe ngendlela yokutshalwa kwezimali, kubangelwa ukuthi iningi lempahla lihanjiswe. Inkathi yobugqila ibangele ukuthunyelwa okukhulu kwemisebenzi njengento ekhululekile yokukhiqiza. E-Afrika, lokhu kwaba ukulahlekelwa okukhulu kwemali yabantu eyayiqeda kakhulu umthamo wemiphakathi yase-Afrika ukukhiqiza ingcebo. Eqinisweni, ukuthuthukiswa kweWest kwakusekelwe ekuhluphekeni kwe-Afrika. I-Colonialism nayo yazama ukuzicebisa ngokwenza imayini kanye nezinto zokusetshenziswa kwezolimo ngezindleko eziphansi kakhulu:

  • Ukusebenzisa umsebenzi osendaweni eshibhile ukukhiqiza lezi zinto zokusetshenziswa
  • Ngokulondoloza izimakethe zase-Afrika ngemikhiqizo yezwe elinamakholomu ngendlela ekhethekile ngangokunokwenzeka

Lokhu kwaholela ekutheni amandla okwehluleka kwamanye amazwe ase-Afrika athuthukise umnotho wabo, okwaba yizingcingo nje zemnotho yasemadolobheni. Ukubhujiswa komthamo wokukhiqiza kwamakholoni ase-Afrika kuyisibonelo esicacile sokunciphisa ukukhiqizwa kwezolimo zasemakhaya, ngaphandle kwezilimo zemali. Ngenxa yalokho, amazwe amaningi ase-Afrika ahlupheka ngenxa yokuntuleka kokudla futhi abe abathengi bokudla. Isikhathi se-post-colonial asizange sishintshe lesi simo. Eqinisweni, ukwehlukana kwezinsiza ezivela ekudalweni kwengcebo kuye kwenyuka ngesikhathi se-post-colonial, njengoba kunesidingo esengeziwe esidingekayo ukuze kutholakale imishini entsha yombuso futhi uphendule izidingo zomphakathi ezicindezelayo zabantu. Izimo zomsebenzi emkhakheni womphakathi zikhuthaza abantu ukuba bayeke imisebenzi yezolimo ikakhulukazi ukuthola umsebenzi ezindaweni zasemadolobheni noma emphakathini. Lokhu kuye kwaholela kumbuthano ononya oye wakhuthaza kuphela ukusebenza kwe-Afrika kanye nomsebenzi wokunciphisa umnotho womhlaba wonke. Abantu abaningi base-Afrika basebenzela njengomthombo wezinto eziphansi nezindleko zokusebenza, kancane kancane bakwazi ukuphula isikhunta lapho bevalelwe khona. Kwaphinde kwaqinisa isithombe esithile se-Afrika, okungukuthi:

  • Izwekazi alikho enye indima emnothweni wezwe kunomhlinzeki wezinto zokusetshenziswa
  • Asikho isidingo sokuba i-Afrika ikwazi ukuthola ubuchwepheshe besimanje namakhono omuntu anjalo
  • Izinkinga zomphakathi nezomnotho ezibhekene nezwekazi kumele zibekwe e-Afrika futhi zixazululwe njengezinkinga zomphakathi
  • Akukho mnikelo emiphakathini yabantu engalindelwa evela e-Afrika, ngaphandle kobuciko obubukwayo kanye nombukiso nendawo yokuhlala yemvelo
  • Izwekazi alinayo indima enkulu eyokudlala ohlelweni lokubusa jikelele

Empeleni, phakathi namakhulu eminyaka, i-Afrika idinga ukuchazwa njengezwekazi elihlukanisiwe. Le ncazelo iholela ezenzweni ezizoqhubeka ziphazamise leli zwekazi.
Uma le ndlela yokwehlukanisa isebenza kakhulu, kunzima kakhulu ukuyidiliza. Lolu bunzima lusebenza nokukhiqizwa, yizwekazi ngokwalo, lezinto ezibonakalayo ezivumela ukuthi ziguqule le ndlela. Ngakho-ke akumangalisi, kuleso simo, ukuthi ithemba labantu base-Afrika ngekusasa elihle liye laxhomeka ekudaleni abanye. Lokhu kuguqula ukungabi namandla kwamandla abantu base-Afrika ukuba babe nokwamukelwa ngokweqile ngokwabo ngokwabo abakwazi ukuzithathela bona. Yingakho bebengakwazi ukuqonda futhi abadlali abazimisele ukuzikhulula ekuxhasweni, ekuhluphekeni nasekuthuthukiseni. Ukuqeda losizi lomuntu, abantu base-Afrika kumele baqiniseke ukuthi abangekho futhi akufanele babe yiwadi ye-trustees abanomusa, kodwa kunalokho izikhali zekusasa labo kanye nabalingisi bokuthuthukisa. qhubeka nezimo zabo zokuphila. Abantu base-Afrika kumele babe nokuqiniseka, futhi lokhu kubalulekile, ukuthi njengabantu base-Afrika baye banikele iqhaza ekuthuthukiseni intuthuko yabantu nokuthi banesandla esiyingqayizivele nesigugu sokwenza.

Naphezu kwalesi sikhathi esidlule, i-Afrika ingakwazi futhi kumele iqinisekise ukuthi ikusasa elihle nelithembayo. I-starting point yileyo eyaholela ekuhlukanisweni kwe-Afrika. Indima ebalulekile ye-Afrika emphakathini womhlaba wonke, ngokwengxenye, ichazwe ukuthi izwekazi liyisisekelo esiyimfuneko kubantu bonke, njengoba sekuyikhulu leminyaka. Lesi sisekelo semithombo singahlukaniswa sibe izingxenye ezintathu. Okokuqala kuqondene nesethi esicebile yamaminerali nezitshalo ezitholakala kulo lonke leli zwekazi. Leli yiqiniso lapho izwe lijwayele khona. Ingxenye yesibili iphathelene nephunga lezemvelo elenza amahlathi ashisayo kanye nokungabi khona kwamandla kagesi okulimaza imvelo. Ukubaluleka kwalezi zici ezimbili zokugcina kwavela nje kuphela, lapho abantu beqala ukuqonda ukubaluleka kokuphila kwemvelo. Ingxenye yesithathu iphathelene nezindawo ezisezindaweni ezisezindaweni eziphakeme nezokuvubukula eziqukethe ubufakazi bokuziphendukela komhlaba, ukuphila kanye nezinhlobo zabantu, izindawo zokuhlala zemvelo ezihlinzekela izinhlobo ezihlukahlukene zezitshalo nezilwane, nezindawo ezinkulu ezingahlali kuyo isici sezwekazi. Ingcebo yemvelo yase-Afrika isandaqala ukuzuza inzuzo ngokwayo, ngaleyo ndlela ivela ensimini encane yesayensi kanye nesithakazelo sayo kumamyuziyamu kanye nabalimi. Lokho okwakuchazwa njengenguquko yokuziphendulela yabantu base-Afrika ibe yi-subspecies yabantu, inqubo eyinkimbinkimbi eyenziwe eminyakeni engamakhulu eminyaka, enye inselelo yabase-Afrika. Kumelwe sonke sikhuphukele enselele enkulu yokwamukela lokho, ngokomlando, lokhu kuguqulwa kwemibono yabantu base-Afrika kwenzeka ngempela, ngaphandle kokusola noma ukwahlulela.

Imfundiso eyenza abantu base-Afrika ukuthi babe yingxenye ephansi yokubusa kwabantu, eqondwa njengobufakazi, inikeze ithuba kulabo abazibheka njengabaphakeme kunabaseAfrika ukuphatha abantu base-Afrika njengabantu abangokwemvelo. Lapho ubuchwepheshe obuphakeme, inhlangano engcono kanye nezinkolelo ezingemvelo kwenza abaseYurophu banqobe abantu base-Afrika futhi babagqilaza, impumelelo yomgomo yale nqubo yaqinisekisa ukuthi abantu base-Yurophu bayakuvuma ukuthi abantu base-Afrika bayaphansi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, ukufakwa okubonakalayo kwabase-Afrika ekubusweni kwabahluleli kuye kwafakazela abaseYurophu ukuthi banelungelo lemvelo lokusebenzisa igunya phezu kwabase-Afrika. Zonke izihlubuki zase-Afrika kulezi zimo, ezihloselwe ukuhluleka, ziye zafakazela njengobungqina bokuthi abamnyama abakwazi ukunqoba abamhlophe. Ukuphikisana konke okuhlulekile kuqinisekisile ukuthi ngisho nalapho abamnyama beqala ukuphoqelela, ubuhlobo obunqunyelwe futhi obunqunyelwe phakathi kokuphakama nophansi, obukhulu futhi obusisiwe, inceku nenceku, abukwazanga ukuguqulwa. Ngakho-ke, okwesikhathi esithile, umlando waphonswa amandla amakhulu esiprofetho ohlelweni lokuqaphela. Into kuphela engayinaki lesi siprofetho kwakuwubufakazi obungokoqobo bokuthi lesi siprofetho sasingamanga, ukubonakaliswa, ikakhulukazi okwenziwe enkosini, ukuthi inceku ingumuntu nje njengenkosi yakhe lapho eyeka ukuba yisigqila.
Ukufeza lo mphumela, abantu base-Afrika kwakudingeka baphakamise ukulwa nekoloni yaseYurophu futhi baphumelele. Ukuphumelela okuqhubekayo kwalokhu kuhlubuka, hhayi ukuvukela ngokwayo, okwakunamandla kangaka, kwakuyisici esiqine ukuqeda inkolelo-ze yokuthi kwakukhona ukuhleleka kwemvelo okwakudinga abamhlophe ukuba baphumelele futhi Abomnyama abaphansi. Ikhono labantu base-Afrika ukuzibusa kanye nokubusa amazwe azimele abe amazwe abo ngenxa yokuhlubuka kwabo kwaholela ekubeni bakwazi ukusebenzisa izinsiza zezwekazi ngaphandle kokuthi abanye bakoloni izwekazi.

Ama-Afrika akwazi ukusebenzisa lezi zinsiza ukuze kuzuze. Ngenkathi amandla ezombangazwe adluliselwa emandleni ekoloni aye ezandleni zamazwe asekuqaleni, umthwalo osindayo wehlela emahlombe asekugcineni njengoba kwakudingeka baqinisekise ukuthi bangakwazi ukufeza imisebenzi yabo ukuze bakhonze izidingo zabantu base-Afrika. ngaphambili becindezelwe. Kwakudingeka benze lokhu esimweni lapho amandla angaphandle ayebona khona ukuvikela izithakazelo zabo emazweni asanda kuzimela njengengxenye ebalulekile "yezintshisekelo zabo zikazwelonke". Lezi zinsuku zachazwa futhi yiqiniso leMpi Yomshoshaphansi eyabangelwa ukuphikisana nokuphikisana kwaseMpumalanga-West. Amandla okwakhiwa kwamakholomu kanye nabanye abadlali abakhulu emphakathini womhlaba wonke babe nesithakazelo emazweni asanda kuzimela awakwazi ukuqina ngokwanele ukuba abadlali abazimele ngempela. Kunalokho, befuna ukuthi izifundazwe ezizimele zikwazi ukwenza ngendlela engasongela "izintshisekelo zabo zomhlaba" noma ziholele "emabhuloki emibono" engalungile esimweni sezingxabano zaseMpumalanga-West. Umphumela waba isimo lapho amandla amakhulu ayekulungele ukuziphatha kabi emakoloni wangaphambili ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuvikelwa kwezintshisekelo zabo ngomqondo obanzi.

Amandla ekoloni nawo aphoqelekile ukuba alondoloze ngokucophelela ukuthembela emazweni asanda kuzimela ukuze afinyelele injongo yawo yokuvikela izithakazelo zabo. Njengoba kunikezwe amandla ubuthakathaka babo, iningi lalezi zizwe ezisanda kuzimela zazinamathuba amancane okuba ngaphandle kokuthembela. Njengoba zithembeke ngokwengeziwe, lapho izithakazelo zamandla aphezulu ziqinisekisiwe futhi ukuqoshwa okwedlule kwaba yimbono yokuthi abantu base-Afrika babamele ukuhleleka kwesintu. Ngenxa yalokho, amandla amakhulu afuna izithakazelo zawo, okwaholela esimweni lapho ukuzimela kwamakholomu ase-Afrika okusho ukuthi lezi zizwe ezisanda kuzimela azizange zithole ithuba lokulawula izinsiza ze-Afrika zokuthuthukiswa. we-Afrika. Ngakho-ke kudingekile ukuba amazwe asezindaweni ezinkulu bakwazi ukusiza labo ababekade bexhomekile, ngaleyo ndlela beqinisa ngokwengeziwe ukuxhomekeka kwabase-Afrika emandleni abo ababekade bekholoni.

Kubantu base-Afrika, ukungabi nokuthuthukiswa komnotho wendabuko kuye kwaba yimbangela yokuqhubeka nokuhlupheka nokuphikelela kwezinyathelo zikahulumeni ukuqinisekisa ukuthi abantu abaningi abahluphekayo abavukeli abaholi abasha. Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi lokhu kuye kwasho emazweni athuthukile ukuthi ukungabikho komnotho emazweni ase-Afrika kusongela ukugcwaliseka kwezinhloso zabo zokuvikela izithakazelo zabo zezomnotho e-Afrika nokuqinisekisa ukuthembeka kwezombusazwe emazweni ase-Afrika. Lokhu kusiholela ekwakhekeni komgomo wezinhloso ezibaluleke kakhulu kokubili i-Afrika nakwezinye izindawo zomhlaba, okungukuthi i-Afrika idinga ukuhleleka kwezombangazwe kanye nesistimu ukubusa okungaba kanje:

  • Yiba ngokomthetho futhi ube nokusekelwa nobuqotho bezizwe zase-Afrika
  • Ukuqina ngokwanele ukuvikela nokugqugquzela izintshisekelo zobukhosi zalaba bantu
  • Siza ukuthuthukisa lezi zimboni ezifanayo
  • Ikhono lokufeza lezi zinhloso, kubandakanya ngokusebenzisana nezinqubo ezihlukahlukene zomhlaba ezikhombisa umnotho womhlaba wonke

Izinzuzo ze-Afrika ziyabonakala. Kodwa-ke, kubalulekile nakwezinye izindawo emhlabeni njengoba bezoqinisekisa izimo ezinzile nezibikezelayo e-Afrika, ephethe ukuxhumana okuqhubekayo phakathi kwezwe lonke kanye nesisekelo somhlaba jikelele wezinsiza ze-Afrika. Ngaphezu kwalokho, lokhu kubalulekile kuwo wonke umhlaba ngoba kungaba yinto enkulu yokumaketha emakethe omnyama omhlaba jikelele nokuthumba, ngokunikezwa kokubambisana kwamazwe omabili lezi zenzakalo.

Mayelana nalokhu, futhi ukuze kuhlangatshezwe nezinselelo zobumpofu, ukuthuthukiswa kwengcindezi nokuhlukunyezwa, i-Afrika kanye nomphakathi wonke womhlaba kumele kuqinisekiswe ukuthi ukuguquguquka kwezepolitiki kwe-Afrika, kusukela ebugqilini, ejokeni lobukoloni kanye nokuthembela kwe-neo-colonial ekuzimele kweqiniso kanye nentando yeningi. Kulezi zimo kuphela i-Afrika nezwe elizophumelela, ngemizamo yabo, ekunqobeni ukuthuthukiswa kwe-Afrika. Ngemuva kokunquma izizathu ezedlule nezikhona zesikhundla samanje se-Afrika, abaholi base-Afrika bathembisa ukwenza uhlelo lokuzalwa kabusha kwezwekazi lase-Afrika, ngasekuqaleni kwaleli khulu leminyaka leminyaka. Abaholi base-Afrika, abanenhlonipho yokuba khona ekhanda lezwekazi ngenxa yombuso abantu abanike wona, bathi lelikhulu leminyaka kufanele libe yikhulu lama-Afrika. Sinqume ukuthi, noma yikuphi izindleko, kwakungenzeka futhi kuyadingeka ukuqinisekisa ukuthi i-Afrika inekusasa eliqhakazile nelithembisayo. Umgomo oyinhloko walesi sinyathelo se-Afrika ukuguqula isimo nesakhiwo sohlelo lokubusa jikelele, kanye nombono we-Afrika, ngokusekelwe, njengoba sishilo ngenhla, ngokubikezelwa okufeziwe.
Sithola amandla ethu ekufezekeni kwe-Afrika kwezobuciko, isiko, isayensi yezemvelo kanye nefilosofi-yenkolo okubangelwa umoya we-Afrika phakathi namakhulu eminyaka. Sithanda ukukhumbula ngalokhu mayelana nemiphakathi ethuthukile yaseMapungubwe ne-Greater Zimbabwe eningizimu ye-Afrika, kanye namayunivesithi achumayo aseNyakatho Afrika okuyiminyaka eminingi ehamba phambili kolwazi nemfundo. Sifisa futhi ukukhumbula imibhalo yesandla yeTimbuktu, imibhalo yasendulo ephethe isihluthulelo kwezinye zezimfihlo zomlando namagugu amasiko ezwekazi lase-Afrika. Le mibhalo yesandla yirekhodi elilotshiwe lekhono lezazi zase-Afrika kanye nabafundi ezifundweni ezifana ne-astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, imithi kanye nemimoya yezinkanyezi eNkathini Ephakathi, ngaleyo ndlela ivinjelwa umbono ovamile womlando I-Afrika ingaba izwekazi elinomkhuba wokukhuluma ngomlomo kuphela.

Kwabaholi base-Afrika, kusobala ukuthi leli zwekazi lizimele liziphendulele ohlelweni lwamazwe omnotho oluye lwasusa isikhathi eside izwekazi lase-Afrika kusukela empilweni yezomnotho emhlabeni, uma kungenjalo njengomhlinzeki wezinto ezibonakalayo. kanye nezisebenzi eshibhile. Ngenkathi i-Organisation of African Unity (OAU) idalwe ku-1963, umgomo wayo oyinhloko kwakuwukukhulula leli zwekazi kusukela ekucindezelweni kwezakoloni. Ukuphela kobandlululo eNingizimu Afrika ku-1994 kwakuyizinga lokuphothulwa kwalesi sikhundla semlando. Noma kunjalo, le mpumelelo yaqokomisa ubuthakathaka benkampani ngokuphathelene nezinselele ezintsha ezibhekene nezwekazi. Ngemuva kwekoloni kanye nokukhululeka kwezwekazi, kwakudingeka impendulo entsha emaqenjini kazwelonke, amazwekazi nakwamanye amazwe ahlangabezane ne-Afrika nje kuphela, kodwa namazwe athile kanye nezifunda. Ngakho-ke, ku-2002, i-African Union (AU) yasungulwa njengethuluzi elisha lase-continental eliholwa abaholi abasha base-Afrika, abaphathi babo abahluke kwi-OAU. I-African Union, ngenxa yoMthetho wayo wokuCubungula, yenziwe ngaphansi komthetho wamazwe ase-Afrika. Iphalamende yasePan-Afrika inikeza i-AU amandla okubeka amazinga azosetshenziswa.

Inkantolo yase-Afrika yezoBulungiswa isebenza ngokuhlinzekwa koMthetho wokuCubungula. Ubukhosi bukazwelonke ngeke busasebenza njengesembozo sezisulu ezimbi, ezifana nohlanga. Kuzobe sekukhona isisekelo esizwakalayo sokuvimbela ukwephulwa okunjalo. Imizamo yethu njengabantu base-Afrika ukuletha leli zwekazi ukuthi lingekho esimeni sayo samanje sokuhlaselwa sekuthole ukubonakala kwayo kokugcina ohlelweni lomphakathi nezomnotho we-Afrika, i-New Partnership for Development Africa (NEPAD). Loluhlelo olubanzi lwezokuthuthukiswa lubhekene nezimo ezidingekayo nezimo ezingenakwenzeka ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuthi i-Afrika isendleleni yentuthuko. Abaholi base-Afrika baye bahlela i-NEPAD ukuba yenze, ngokwengxenye, impendulo eyamukelekile enkolelweni yethu yokuthi singaphansi, ngaleyo ndlela sihlukumeza ngokubambisana kwe-Afrika ekucindezelweni kwayo futhi ngaleyo ndlela sigcwalise ukubikezela okugcwaliseka. . Imithethonqubo, iminikelo, usizo nokusizwa, okwamukelwe ngaphambilini ngaphandle kwezinhloso ezingenasici futhi ngaphandle kwemibuzo eminingi, ngokuqashelwa nokuhlonishwa okuvela kuzo, e-ejenti kanye nabangane emhlabeni jikelele, baye banikeza indlela yokutshalwa kwezimali yi- Izinsiza ezincane zase-Afrika ekuthuthukiseni kwayo, ezindaweni ezibonwe ngenhloso yabo ekuthuthukisweni komuntu ukunqoba izinselele ezibhekene nabantu. I-Afrika manje inomthwalo wemfanelo wokuchaza izifo zayo nokuthola izixazululo ngamasu angokwakhe.

Ukuphumelela okuqhubekayo kwe-NEPAD kanye nokuqina okukhulayo kuleli zwekazi ekuthuthukiseni kufanele, phakathi kwezinye izinto, kubangele isimo lapho i-Afrika izokwazi ukuhlanganyela ekwakheni izwe lanamuhla. Izitatimende ezinjalo zisikhumbuza ngeNkosi Alfred Tennyson, owathi, "Uhlelo oludala luyashintsha, lunikeze indawo entsha, nentando kaNkulunkulu igcwaliseke ngezindlela eziningi, hleze umkhuba omuhle ungonakalise umhlaba."

Inkulumo kaThabo Mbéki i-19 November 2003 e-UNESCO

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