Kungani kufanele siyeke ukulwa nabadlali be-informal e-Afrika?

Emazweni athuthukile, izimakethe zabasebenzi yindawo yokuhlangana phakathi kokunikezwa kanye nokufunwa. Kodwa esimweni sase-Afrika lapho umsebenzi wokuziqasha kanye ne-micro-entrepreneurship kuyindlela ephezulu yokungena emakethe yezabasebenzi, umngcele ophakathi kokunikezwa kanye nokufuna umsebenzi kuphazamiseka. Ngakho ukubaluleka kokuqonda nokuhlanganisa umnotho ongakahleleki ngendlela eyinkimbinkimbi kanye ne-heterogeneity, ukwenza kube yi-lever yangempela yokukhula okuhlangene nokusimeme kuleli zwekazi.

Ngokusuka emazingeni omhlaba jikelele wezabasebenzi, i-sub-Sahara yase-Afrika iphinde ihluke ekubuseni ekuchazeni indlela yayo. Njengoba iningi yomsebenzi wezomnotho e-Afrika kuyinto lengakahleleki kantsi cishe 80% we-GDP livela icandelo, izingqapheli kanye nochwepheshe baphoqeleka ukuba bagunyaze ukukhululeka njengento enhle, okungukuthi, iphrizimu ngokusebenzisa okuyinto ukuhlaziywa izinhlelo zezomnotho zase-Afrika.

Ekuqaleni, isici sezomnotho (i-1) kwakuyisisekelo esiyinhloko sokuhlaziywa komkhakha ongakahleleki, umkhakha wezemfundo namasiko (2), noma kunjalo, kusiza ukukhanyisa ukuhlaziywa kwesinye isimo.

Ngomnotho wezomnotho, ukuhlelwa kwemininingwane kubuyele emuva ngaphambi kokuzimela ngokutshalwa kwezimali kwangaphandle (FDI) kusuka emazweni aseNtshonalanga kuya ezwekazi lase-Afrika. Amazwe afana neNingizimu Afrika, eKenya noma e-Ivory Coast akwazi ukukujabulela okwesikhashana. Eminyakeni ye-80, ukwehluleka kwezinqubomgomo zokulungiswa kwesakhiwo (SAPs) kwaba nemiphumela emibi (ukunciphisa inkokhelo, ukwehla kwenani lezisebenzi zikahulumeni, ukuthengiswa kwamabhizinisi kazwelonke ...) kubantu abasebenza. Ukuhlaziywa kwe-CFA Franc ku-1994 kuzoqhubeka nokubuthakathaka emakethe yezabasebenzi futhi kubangele ukwanda kwenani lezithunywa ezisebenza emkhakheni ongakahleleki.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, imisebenzi engakahleleki ayikhona nje ngamasu okusinda kodwa ngokukhetha okukhululekile nokuqaphela abantu base-Afrika. Kunenombolo real micro-osomabhizinisi. Ngakho-ke kuyoba okuthakazelisayo ukwazi ukuthi izinga lemfundo, ngakho-ke lezimfanelo, lithonya lokhu kuqondiswa komnotho osemthethweni. Ngamanye amazwi, ingabe izisebenzi ezingxenyeni ezingakahleleki zithatha isinqumo noma ingabe isesezingeni elibili, isondo elilodwa lapho kungabikho indlela yokuphuma emkhakheni womphakathi nezizimele?

UPierre Tegoum, uzobheka lolu daba, njengomhlahlandlela wokuhlaziya eCameroon[1]. Kubonisa ukuthi imfundo idlala indima ebalulekile esimweni sobuchwepheshe sabasebenzi baseCameroon. Ukuhlanganiswa emkhakheni ongakahleleki kuncike ikakhulukazi ngokomongo womndeni. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amathuba okungena emkhakheni we-informal wehla ngemfundo, kanti amathuba okungahlali futhi angene emkhakheni ohleliwe ngokukhula kwemfundo. Kusukela kulo mbono, isilinganiso sokuvimbela ukulinganisa izinga labasebenzi abangaqashiwe kungaba ukuthuthukisa ukufinyeleleka kanye nekhwalithi yemfundo, okungenani kuze kube umjikelezo wokuqala wemfundo yesibili.

Ezingeni leyunivesithi, abantu abasha, ikakhulukazi besifazane, kufanele bakhuthazwe ukuba bazikhethele ubuchwepheshe, ukukhiqiza, ukwakhiwa, ukuxhaphazwa kwemithombo yemvelo kanye nokulima. Abaqashi abakhulu kunazo zonke e-Afrika yizinkampani zokudayisa, ezolimo kanye nembonini yehhotela. Ngakho-ke isidingo sokwenza amakhono ezobuchwephesha nokuqeqeshwa okukhangayo nokukhangayo kwabesifazane nakubantu abasha.

Ukungabi nhlobo nokuphepha okuphansi noma okungabikho kwezenhlalakahle kwabasebenzi emkhakheni ongakahleleki yizimbangela eziyinhloko zentsha engathandeki kulo mkhakha obalulekile wezomnotho wase-Afrika. Umkhakha ongakahlelekile manje uthatha ingxenye engaphezu kwesigamu sabasebenzi bomhlaba jikelele futhi uhlanganisa ngaphezu kwe-90% yama-SME. Ucwaningo I-African Development Bank (AfDB) yembula ukuthi e-Afrika engaphansi kweSahara, umsebenzi ongakhokhelwa umele ngaphezu kwe-80% yomsebenzi wonke wabesifazane futhi ngaphezulu kwe-60% yamadoda. Abasebenzi abayisishiyagalolunye kwabayishumi, emaphandleni nasemadolobheni, banemisebenzi engakahleleki e-Afrika.

Ngaphandle kwezinto ezomnotho nezemfundo, sicabanga ukuthi kubalulekile ukucabangela ukulingana komphakathi kanye namasiko. "Ubuningi bomkhakha ongakahleleki buchazwa nokucwiliswa kwemikhuba yawo emikhakheni yezenhlalo nezamasiko ezweni ngalinye-ukusondela, ukubambisana, izibopho eziqinile zomphakathi, umqondo womndeni, ubuhlanga, inhlanga, njll. " imibiko ukomnotho uKako Nubukpo, uvakashele isazi e-Oxford. Ngempela, ezinye izisebenzi zithuthela emkhakheni ongakahleleki ngoba nje umsebenzi wezomnotho wangaphakathi, umsebenzi owenziwe kusukela kumzali kuya komntwana. Ngakho-ke kunzima ngabo ukuzicabanga ngenye indlela yokuma noma isimo sobuchwepheshe.

Kubonakala kulezi zinto esizibalulekile ukuthi sicabange ukuthi umkhakha othungathiwe ujwayelekile e-Afrika. " Imakethe yezabasebenzi esebenza kahle ayiyona into efana nemakethe yomsebenzi ehlelekile[2]"Usikhumbuza ngalokhu, uMartin Rama, esanduleleni sakhe sokutadisha i-AFD (2013) emakethe yemisebenzi yasemadolobheni ase-Afrika engaphansi kweSahara. Emazweni athuthukile, izimakethe zabasebenzi yindawo yokuhlangana phakathi kokunikezwa kanye nokufunwa. Kodwa esimweni sase-Afrika lapho umsebenzi wokuziqasha kanye ne-micro-entrepreneurship kuyindlela ephezulu yokungena emakethe yezabasebenzi, umngcele ophakathi kokunikezwa kanye nokufuna umsebenzi kuphazamiseka. Ngakho ukubaluleka kokuqonda nokuhlanganisa umnotho ongakahleleki eyinkimbinkimbi kanye ne-heterogeneity yayo, ukwenza i-lever yangempela yokukhula okuhlangene nokusimeme kwezwekazi.

Ekugcineni, siyaqaphela ukuthi inhloso yethu kwakungeyona ukuxolisa ngokungahleleki, kodwa ukuyiveza njengenqubomgomo yokungasebenzi ngokwanele, ukuqaliswa okungalungile kwezinguquko, ukungenelela ngokweqile kanye izithelo zokuzikhethela. Ukufometha ngokwayo akufanele ujeziswekungumgomo wokuthuthukisa ozokwenza umphakathi uzinze, "okunye okumele kube khona imodeli yokukhula ehlangene.

[1] UPierre Nguetse Tegoum, "2.2. Ukuhlaziywa kwembuyiselo yemfundo emkhakheni ongakahleleki eCameroon [40] ", Umnotho ongakahleleki emazweni asathuthuka, I-2012, i-1129.

[2] DE VREYER Philippe noROUBAUD François, ama-eds., Izimakethe zomsebenzi zasemadolobheni e-Afrika engaphansi kweSahara, I-IRD / AFD, iforamu yezokuthuthukiswa kwe-Afrika (i-Marseille: i-IRD Publishing, i-2013)., P. 11.

Siyabonga ngokuphendula nge-emoticon bese wabelana ngendaba
Love
Haha
wow
Sad
Angry
Usuke usabela "Kungani kufanele siyeke ukulwa ..." Imizuzwana embalwa edlule

Ukufunda futhi