Ukuphila nomcabango ka-Ahmed Baba (1556-1627)

Ahmad Baba
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Ngo-Oktoba 26 1556 ukuba Araouane eMali Ahmad Ibn Ahmad al-Takuri Al Musafi al Timbukti wayenamandla ngokungenakuqhathaniswa omunye ongqondongqondo kulenkhulu isikhathi sakhe. Ukuphila kwakhe kufakazela yena, zonke izici ezinhle nezesabekayo ezibonisa umlando onzima we-Western Sudan.

Ukucaphuna: "O wena oya eGao, yenza umzila ngeTimbuktu. Memezela igama lami kubangane bami, futhi ulethe insindiso enhle yokuthunjwa, obubula umhlabathi noma ohlala emndenini wakhe, abangane bakhe, omakhelwane bakhe. Console lapho abathandekayo bami abathandekayo, ukufa kweNkosi eyangcwatshwa ".

Iminyaka yakhe yokuqala

Ku-Araouane ukuthi u-Ahmed osemncane uchitha ingxenye yobuntwana bakhe. Kakade, wabonisa isithakazelo esikhulu kukho konke okuhlobene nesayensi, ifilosofi nezincwadi. Ukuze aqonde ulwazi lwakhe, waya eTimbuktu noyise ummeli u-Alhadji Ahmadou. Lezi zinsuku zihlakulelwe kakhulu, zaziwa kakade ngolwazi lwakhe.

Efika eTimbuktu, u-Ahmed Baba ulandela ikharikhulamu evamile ngokuphathelene nokufunda. Ngaphansi kokuqondiswa koprofesa omkhulu Mohammed Baghayogo, washesha kakhulu ukufunda isayensi. Wafunda ifilosofi, ingqondo, i-exegesis, umthetho, uhlelo lolimi, inkolo, inkolelo, umlando, izincwadi, njalonjalo. Kungemva kweminyaka engamashumi amathathu ukuthi uqede izifundo zakhe, emva kokuqeqesha okude, kodwa okudingekayo.

Njengoba eseba uthisha ngokwakhe, wafundisa ifilosofi yakhe, waba ngesikhathi esifanayo omunye wabafundisi bezemfundo baseSudan. Washiya inani elikhulu labafundi, abaze bafeze isikhathi eside emva kokufa kwakhe.

Ngokufanayo nendima yakhe yemfundo, usosayensi omkhulu kwadingeka asebenze umsebenzi we-cadi, okungukuthi, wejaji lamaSulumane. Umlingiswa wethembekile kunazo zonke, ngabe ubhale izincwadi ezincane ezingaphansi kwekhulu ngokwezinye zazo i-56 eyaziwa ukuthi ikhona. Ngokusebenzisa lezi zincwadi, u-Ahmed Baba uchaza imfundiso yakhe yenkolo, ifilosofi yakhe, izinkondlo zakhe ngisho nengxenye yemizwa yakhe.

Ifilosofi yakhe

Namuhla, umcabango kaBaba usabaluleke kakhulu eSudanese abaningi. Noma kunjalo, kufanele kukhunjulwe ukuthi uhlala phezu kwayo yonke isazi semfundiso yenkolo yamaSulumane nokuthi ingxenye enhle yokuzindla kwakhe iyingxenye yezinkolelo kanye nokuziphatha kwamaSulumane. Noma kunjalo ifilosofi yakhe ibonisa umoya wakhe ojulile wase-Afrika. Uthi umsuka wakhe futhi waziqhenya ngokuba yiSudanese.

U-Ahmed Baba wazihlukanisa nabantu abaphila ngesikhathi sakhe ngokucabangela kwakhe ngaphambili. Wayebhekwa njengenguMujjadid, umvuseleli wenkolo yekhulu leminyaka. Ngokusho kukaNomame Mbongo, owayengumcabango omusha, wenqaba njengesazi sefilosofi, ukucabangela okukhululekile nokucabanga ngokucophelela kwemibono.

Ngokwezinye izikhathi eziningi ezivela ekuqaleni, amaMali avikela imibono yakhe yezombangazwe, zefilosofi nezenkolo. Incwadi yakhe "Jalb al-nima WADAF yami al-niqma bi mujanabat al wulat al-Zalama" (Lucky nangokumelene amashwa ukugwema iziphathimandla engenabulungisa) ubonisa amandla abo okuphila umlilo zehluke izinto ezilimazayo yobuqotho. Lezi zikhundla zamandla nokungabaza azinakekela ngaye, kubonise ukuthi ukhuluma kangakanani kangakanani. Kubhalwe ku-1588, le ncwadi ikhuluma ngobuhlobo phakathi koososayensi nezombangazwe. Kodwa-ke, akafihli izizathu zomuntu siqu eziholela ekubeni abhale. "Ngoba mina futhi wazise kimi ukuxwayisa bezwe yami ontanga yami ngokumelene ababusi abacindezelayo khona, ngakuloba lo mqulu," ebhala.

Njengoba eyazi ukuthi umuntu uyintfo ebuthakathaka, ngabe ngisho nalabo abokugcina bezobe behlonywe kakhulu, u-Ahmed Baba uphazamisa abahlakaniphi abaningi ngenxa yokuntuleka kwabo kokulunga. Kungabaza isimo sengqondo sabososayensi abathile, abavuma ukuthi bangonakaliswe ngamandla, balahlekelwa konke amandla okugxeka phezu kwalowo mbusi.

Lolu cwaningo aluphiki amandla amandla, lubheke njengesixhobo sokuziphatha okubi. Ngokuphambene nalokho, u-Ahmed Baba amandla akhathaza kuphela uma ekhohlakele, ehlukumeza noma ehlukumezayo. Ukubusa okuhle, kuhlanganiswe nesimo sengqondo esinempilo engxenyeni yabafundi abafundele, kungavimbela ukuziphatha okuningi okungahambi kahle.

Ngakho-ke isimo sengqondo sesosayensi mayelana nezombusazwe kufanele sinqunywe mayelana nokuziphatha okungeyona impahla. Uma amandla alungile, usosayensi angazibandakanya naye ngokuzibiza ngalezi zeluleko. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, uma engumqondisi nomonakalo, isazi semfundiso yenkolo kufanele sihambe kude. Ukuze abonise ukuthi inhloso kubaluleke ngaphezu isenzo, isazi sefilosofi echazwe 1592 welithi "niyya" Encwadini yakhe ethi "Ghayat al-Amal al-Fi Fadl niyya ala l-amal" (ukuphakama kwenhloso phezu kwesenzo).

Ngokusho kwakhe:

"I-niya ikhuluma ngokuzwakalayo noma engqondweni ngomuntu ofuna ukwenza isenzo. Inendawo yayo enhliziyweni, isigaba esiphakathi se-intelligence nesenzo ".

Ngo-Nsame Mbongo, inhliziyo eyilungu elihle kunazo zonke lomzimba womuntu kanye nenhloso echazwe yilesi sitho, ithwala ngokwaso ukuhlonipha kwalokhu futhi ngenxa yalokho iphakeme ngaphezu kwesenzo, okuyiqiniso "amalungu angaphandle" omzimba, izitho ezingaphansi kakhulu. Le mpikiswano iqiniswa ngokucabangela ukuthi leyo njongo ingumkhakha womyalo kanti isenzo sisesimweni sokusebenza. Ngakho-ke ungaphansi kwesithunzi ngenhloso yokuzikhethela, eyala futhi elalela. Lesi yisibonelo esisodwa nje somsebenzi wokubheka i-BABA owenza kuzo zonke ucwaningo lwawo.

Futhi ngokuvumelana Nsame Mbongo Ahmed Baba kuyinto sefilosofi ngomqondo maqondana njengoba kubonisa ezindabeni jikelele ayisisekelo. Isibonelo, ubuhlobo phakathi kwenhloso nokwenza, phakathi kolwazi namandla, noma phakathi kwamandla nesayensi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, it ukhuluma lezi zinkinga ngokuxoxa nge zefilosofi nezazi odumile like Al-Ghazali kanye Ibn Kaldoun noma falling isihlobo kunoma zamanje zefilosofi noma ezenkolo.

Okokugcina, masithathe leli daba elikhombisa ukuthi umcabangi wase-Afrika uphikiswa kangakanani emoyeni womphakathi.

Ngakho-ke ukhumbula ku-1603, emgqeni athiwa ngokuthi "Tunfat al-fudala bi-bad fada'il al-Ulama" (izipho eziyigugu zandisa ubuhle besosayensi):

"Labo possess azani noma ukwazi futhi ningenzi ngokuvumelana imfundo yabo kuphela isigamu abalalelayo ngesikhathi noma labo possess futhi senze ngokuvumelana naso abe sokunconywa double (...). Setsembele umqondo kokubusa wafunda, njengoba kufakazelwa hadith eziningi Athar kanye Imikhuba eminingi eyaqala "ubudala nokuqotho." Kodwa ososayensi okukhulunywa lapha nalabo ababonisa umoya ukuzishaya nokuzinikela futhi bavumelane emfundisweni Qur'an and Sunnah, hhayi labo abakufunayo ukuthatha isayensi izithakazelo zabo ngokushesha noma udumo ".

Le ncaphuno ishiya ngokungangabazeki ngomoya womphakathi okhuthaza ukucabanga komfundisi wezenkolo. Ukuzimela komunye umuntu nge-egoism, akufanele kuthathe kuqala ngaphezu komphakathi. Uphikisa nokukholelwa okungenakukholelwa ekukholweni okucabangayo, ngenkathi ethatha izinhlangothi zalo. Ngokuthembela ekubuseni kwamaSulumane, uBaba ucaphuna izingcaphuno ezivela kwezinye izinkolo zenkolo.

Ezinye zazo zihlanganisa:

- "funa isayensi eChina uma kunesidingo";

"Abafundi bayindlalifa yabaprofethi";

"Inki yabafundi ihle kunegazi labafel 'ukholo."

(bheka i-zouber p.164)

Ekuphetheni ngesayensi yefilosofi ka-Ahmed Baba. Kumele kuqaphele ukuthi ukucabanga kwakhe kuncike ekutheni umthetho wamaSulumane awunamanga, futhi akumangalisi ummeli wenkolo. Kumelwe kugcizelelwe ukuthi ukucabanga salo ogxile Afrika, noma embuzweni ubudlelwano phakathi izazi nababusi, ukuchaza predominance ngenhloso ngalokwentekako futhi ikakhulukazi ukweneka olufunwa nguye omphakathi phezu ngabanye. Izindawo eziningi zokuzindla lapho kucatshangwa khona ingqondo yefilosofi yase-Afrika.

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