Ukuvukela kuka-Abbey ngokumelene namakholoni we-1906-1916

i-Abbey revolt

Ziyabonakala ezingqondweni zabantu base-Ivoriya njengabantu abahlubukayo phakathi nesikhathi sekoloniyali babonisa ukwenqaba kokungena kumuntu omhlophe ezweni lakhe.

Abantu base-abbey eningizimu yeCôte d'Ivoire, ogama lakhe eliyinhloko ngu-Agboville, banomlando wokuthi imilolotelo yokuphikisana okukhulu nokuhlukunyezwa nokuxhaphazwa kwe-servile okuhlanganiswa nekoloni. Yesizukulwane uzokhumbula isikhathi eside lokhu indaba funny lapho 1910, the yesonto ngabe wabulawa Rubino, isikhulu nesifiki ngemva kokuba ibulewe, waba uthathe yizicucu futhi sidliwe ukunikeza isixwayiso nokuphathwa wamakoloni. Lokhu kusho abamhlophe ukuthi abbey abakwazi ukuthengisa ubuqotho babo nesithunzi sabo egameni loma yimuphi umsebenzi wempucuko. Umlando uzophinde ukhumbule ukuthi kwakungabantu abaphikisana kakhulu nokungena kwamakholoni, okuyinto ukumelana kwahlala iminyaka engaphezu kweyishumi (1906-1916). Kodwa endleleni, yibaphi abantu abathiwa abahlubukayo abathi, bangasho ukuthi bangaboni ngaso sonke isikhathi ukubonisa ukungavumelani kwabo, kaningi ngonya? Yikuphi okuyiqiniso kwalesi simo sokubulawa komuntu lapho umhlophe wawuzodliwa yi-abbey ngemuva kwalokho umlando manje obiza ukuvukela kwe-abbey? Ngenxa yokuvakashela kulesi sifundazwe, lo mbhalo waya emthonjeni wolwazi lapho ithimba lethu lokubika likwazi ukuhlangabezana neziphawulekayo ezikwazi ukubuyisela amaqiniso kuwo wonke umlando wabo. Laba baqaphi bendabuko baphakamisa ikhoneni lesigqoko emlandweni wabantu base-abbey-krobou nakule ndaba kaRubino, owagcina ekunikezeni igama lakhe endaweni yakuleli ndawo.

I-abbey, abantu abahlubukayo?

I abbey ayingxenye yeqembu Akan futhi njengamanye amalungu eqembu yobuhlanga ngobukhulu bevela Ghana ukuba 17ème kwekhulu futhi sihlaliswe eseningizimu yomfula Comoé, ngokunembile kuphoceka-Makouguié. I-Agboville idolobha elidalwa izifiki emva kokuthuthwa kwabantu bakuleli dolobha lika-Ery Makouguié ngenxa yesifo sengculaza. Ngokushesha leli dolobha elincane liba yisisekelo esikhulu sempi se-canton Abbey. Ngemuva kokuvukela kwabantu, leli ndawo liba yi-1916, indawo eyinhloko yombuthano we-Agnéby ofaka ukuhlukaniswa iziqephu kwe-Agboville ne-Adzopé. UMnyango we-Agboville, manje oyinhloko-dolobha yesifunda, manje uhlanganisa ama-prefectures ase-Azaguié, Oress-Krobou, Rubino, Grand Morié noCechi. Amanye amaqiniso omlando ahlala kulesi sifundazwe anelungelo lokusho ukuthi le ndawo yayiyingxenye yokuphikisana nokuphikisana nokuphathwa kwamakholoni ngaphansi kokuhola kukaFelix Houphouet Boigny. Ku-1944 isibonelo, i-African Agricultural Union (SAA) yadalwa kule ndawo, ikakhulukazi emakamu okulima kaJoseph Anoma noGabriel Dadié. Umklomelo (isitshalo sezitshalo ezishisayo esakhiqiza i-kola nut) ngaphansi kwalowo owabamba umhlangano we-Saa ulahlekelwe yinye yemvelo yawo. Lokhu Cola ukuthi wanqoba obangelwe isikhathi namanje umi ngokuzazisa emkhakheni Dadi Gabriel, uNkosazana Hortense Aka Anghui uyise, ku Agboville Tiassalé-axis. Lesi sihlahla saba yindawo yokuhambela izimbangi zeDemocratic Party yaseCôte d'Ivoire (Pdci), iqembu lezombangazwe elaphuma emathunjini aseSa'a. U-Henri Konan Bédié, umengameli wale mpilo akazange aphuthelwe ukwehla phansi komuthi walesi sihlahla, egcwele umlando ngesikhathi ehambele kulo mkhakha we-9 ngo-19 September. Kulokho manje okuthiwa yi-Rubino, uNanan Okoma Calvaire, isisebenzi se-COTIVO yefesti ehlala emhlalaphansi kanti ilungu lokungahloniphi kwaleli zwe likhumbula amaqiniso atshelwa nguyise ngubani owayengumdlali oyinhloko ekuvukeleni. Kuye, i-abbey ayiyizihlubuki, kungabi yilabo abahlukunyezwayo. Ngokwalowo mgcini wendabuko, i-abbey ithatha udumo lwakhe, ubuqotho bakhe nesithunzi sakhe njenge-apula yamehlo akhe. Yilapho umuntu efuna ukuphazamisa lezo zimiso eziyinhloko kuye ukuthi ubonisa ubuso bakhe obufihlekile. Amehlo agxila ezinkumbulweni zobuntwana bakhe, lo wesifazane ocansini utshela ngokujabula le ndaba njengoba eyitholile kubaba wakhe emlilweni.

"I-Rubino yigama lomuntu ohlala kuyo, ngaphandle kokuba yisiphathimandla empini yekoloni, wayengumthengisi edolobheni lethu. Wahamba ukuze athathe izimpahla zakhe ezivela eGrand Bassam ukuze aziphonsa e-counter yakhe eDimbokro. Phakathi nokuhamba kwakhe wayevame ukuchitha ubusuku nabazali bethu. Kwakuphakathi ukuvukela kwezinceku abbey ukuthi lokhu umnumzana wabulawa yi-abbey ukuba Déobodjè, isigodi 9 emakhilomitha Agboville futhi 10 emakhilomitha Rubino. Ngemva kwalolu bugebengu, abafowethu ababehlala kule ndawo, ekuqaleni babiza iGbogbobou, igama elibizwa ngokuthi i-Agni futhi okusho ngaphansi komgcini. Abazali bethu bakhetha ukubuyela emuva lapha ukuze babalekele ukufutheka kwabahlali kanye nezigebengu zaseSenegal ezazithunyelwa ekantwini lethu ukuze ziqede ukuvukela. Ngakho wonke umuntu wahlala lapha eRubino, okuyinto eyayiyindlela lapho abahwebi bephumula khona phansi komgubho ngaphambi kokuba baqhubeke nendlela yabo eya eTimassalé noma eMbatto. Ngakho-ke leli dolobha lalihlala nalabo ababalekela ukuxhashazwa kwalaba bahlali ngemuva kokubulawa kukaRubino kanye nomzila wesitimela owawuthola, kwakhiwa isiteshi kule ndawo. Kukhunjulwe lo mhlophe owabulawa ukuthi igama likaRubino linikezwe. Kukhona ngisho ne-mausoleum eyakhiwe enkumbulweni yakhe futhi manje iyindawo yokuvakasha, "kusho ophawulekayo ngaphambi kokufaka iminyaka engu-100 yalesi senzakalo izogubha ngonyaka ozayo.

"Abamhlophe abadla uRubino"
U-Nanan Okama Calvaire ebuhlotsheni bakhe bamaqiniso naye wabonisa ukuthi akulungile ukusola abbey ukuba ngabantu abangenakudlala ukuthi bangadla umhlophe ukuba aphindiselele amaFulentshi ngenkathi yekoloniyali. Ngaphandle kokuphika iqiniso lamaqiniso, okuphawulekayo kuthiwa yizifiki ezazidla inyama yombuso wabo waseRubino.

Nasi ubufakazi bakhe. "Ngaleso sikhathi, abahlali kanye nezivikeli zezokuzivikela beza ukunqoba abantu abaphikisana nokuqashwa nokuphoqeleka. Bakwenza iminyaka emibili elandelanayo phakathi nemikhosi yamamu eyayigubha izinsuku ezintathu ezilandelanayo. Kwakukhona ngalesi sikhathi ukuthi bamangala phakathi nomkhosi abantu basekhaya kanye nalaba ababalekela lezi zihlukumezekile baphoqeleka ukuthatha isihluthulelo semasimu ukuba babalekele ehlathini. Babulala abesifazane nezingane, bahlambalaza umuzi, badla ukudla okwakulungiselwe umkhosi, base bethatha yonke into abangayithatha nayo, okungaba igolide noma ezinye izinto eziyigugu.

Ngemva kokubheka bakule ndawo baye baqaphela ukuthi abadayisi Rubino transiting sakithi nokuthi abazali wethu wamnikela cottage futhi embozwe ekwazisa ekuphathweni wamakoloni zikhathi propitious lapho ibutho wamakoloni ungase uthole wonke umuntu endaweni . Ukuze amenze ukukhokhela nokukhohlisa wokungabongi yakhe izikweletu, izakhamuzi wambulala ngosuku olwandulela eyesithathu yam idili ezalandela ukwazi ukuthi sharpshooters nezikhonzi ezimhlophe zazifika beziphindiselela ngosuku olulandelayo njengoba iminyaka esandulele. Ngakho balungiselela ngesidlo esiphundu kakhulu esasiwazisa kakhulu abahlali ngaleso sikhathi.

Njengoba kulindeleke, bavele ngosuku olulandelayo futhi abantu bakuleli babalekela ngokwemvelo. Kwakusesikhathini besidla ukudla okushiwo yizakhamuzi ukuthi omunye wabahlali baqaphele ukuthi ucezu lwenyama ayewuthathe empeleni wawunomunwe womuntu onendandatho lapho wabhala igama likaRubino. Kwakuyilo mzuzwana ukuthi baqaphela ukuthi babedlile omunye wabo.

Ukubusa kwamakholoni ngaphansi kombusi uGabriel Angoulvant uye wanquma ukukhokha inani eliphezulu kakhulu lokubulala uRubino. Le flip-flop enobudlova ye-abbey izoholela uMbusi u-Angoulvant ukushintsha imfundiso yakhe yokuphatha yaseCôte d'Ivoire. Ngakho-ke siqhubekela phambili "endleleni yokungena enokuthula" (i-1893-1908) ephumelela "ukuqiniswa ngendlela enamandla" (1908-1915). Ama-abbeys ayephikisana nekoloni, ukubopha kanye nokusebenza ngokuphoqeleka okuhlobene nomzila wejantshi lase-Abidjan-Niger bathunyelwa emazweni asuswe kude nesifunda sabo.

Bokassa, Sassou, Patassé, abbey?
Ukuqhubeka kokuxoshwa kwabaholi bokuvukela kwe-abbey kuyaqhubeka nokuphikisana phakathi kwababhali-mlando kanye ne-anthropologists.
Kwamanye alaba abbey, okwakuyingxenye enkulu ekuthunjelwe eCentral African Republic naseCongo-Brazzaville babe nezingane namuhla ezidlala indima ehola kula mazwe amabili.
Kucatshangwa ukuthi izinhloko zikahulumeni uJean Bedel Bokassa, uDenis Sassou N'Guesso no-Ange Felix Patasse ziyinzalo yalaba baphathi abre. Abagqugquzeli balo mqondo baxhomeke emaqenjini alabo besifundazwe abamazwe abo abanjwe empeleni ku-1910 Ivorian ngesikhathi sokuhlubuka kwe-abbey. Kwakuyiqhinga lokuphatha ubuholi bekolonial ukususa abaholi bokumelana nokunciphisa ukumelana.

Kuthiwa futhi lezi zintathu zinezikhundla ze-abbey futhi zinezikhukhula ezivela emzaneni waseGrand-Morié eseduze namakhilomitha ayishumi futhi okuyi-Ernest Boka. Ukuhlukaniswa kwe-semantic yamagama abiza abon consonances, okwaqinisa esikhundleni sabo abavikeli bomsunguli wama-Ivorian abaMongameli baseCongo naseCentral African.

Kubo, ukuthi u-Emperor Bokassa ungubani ngempela kanje: Boka Assa. Omunye u-Ange Félix Patassé uqinisile u-Pata Assé futhi umengameli uDenis Sassou N'Guesso uzoba negama langempela elithi Souassou N'Gbesso. Njengoba kungabonakala, laba baphathiswa abathathu ngokuvumelana nokuqhamuka okuvela kulezi zifundo banamagama abhalwe phansi abesondelene nalabo abathwala abantu baseCôte d'Ivoire. Kodwa ingabe lokho kwakwanele ukuqinisekisa isihluthulelo semvelaphi yase-Ivory noma se-abbey lobuhlanga?

SOURCE: http://www.rezoivoire.net/cotedivoire/patrimoine/274/100-ans-apres-la-revolte-des-abbey-pourquoi-le-colon-rubino-a-ete-mange.html#.VZF06_ntmko

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