Umkhakha ongakahleleki, injini yentuthuko ehlanganyelwe yathinteka ekuthuthukiseni umnotho wase-Afrika.

Imisebenzi engakahleleki ayikhona nje ngamasu okusinda kodwa ngokukhetha okukhululekile nokuqaphela abantu base-Afrika. Kunezinhlobo eziningana zama-microentrepreneurs eqiniso. Ngakho-ke kuyoba okuthakazelisayo ukwazi ukuthi izinga lemfundo, ngakho-ke iziqu [5] lithonya le ndlela yokufinyelela emnothweni osemthethweni. Ngamanye amazwi, ingabe izisebenzi ezingxenyeni ezingakahleleki ziyihlosile noma ingcono yini okwesibini, isondo elilodwa lapho kungekho khona ukuphuma emkhakheni womphakathi nawungasese?

I-Sumumé : Emazweni athuthukile, sekuyisiko ukucubungula izimakethe zabasebenzi njengendawo lapho ukutholakala nokufunwa kuhlangana khona. Kodwa esimweni sase-Afrika lapho umsebenzi wokuziqasha kanye ne-micro-entrepreneurship kuyindlela ephezulu yokungena emakethe yezabasebenzi, umngcele ophakathi kokunikezwa kanye nokufuna umsebenzi kuphazamiseka.

Ukungajwayelekile kuyinto evamile e-Afrika.

Umkhuba ungumngcele ezihambayo. Umkhuba ngempela unesimo se-axiological okufanele sicatshangelwe futhi sihlonishwe. Kuyinto efanayo nakwezomnotho wase-Afrika, othuthukayo, ngandlela-thile emkhakheni ongakahleleki[1]. Kulokhu kuhlaziywa, akusiyo umbuzo wokuxolisa ngolwazi kodwa ukuveza ukuthi kuyindlela yokuthuthukiswa okubandakanya nokuguqulwa kwesakhiwo se-Afrika.

Umdwebo we-1: I-6 yezomnotho okukhula okusheshayo kwe-10 i-Afrika. @CI, 2018

Ngokwe-International Monetary Fund[2] (I-IMF), i-6 ye-10 imnotho esheshayo e-2018 itholakala e-Afrika. I-Ethiopia ne-8,3% ukukhula, uhola umnotho onamandla kakhulu, ilandelwa yiGhana , ngokwezibikezelo ze-IMF. Ukudlondlobala komnotho uyaqhubeka e-Afrika eseningizimu yeSahara lapho icandelo okuyisa futhi enza ushintsho. Futhi njengoba kufakazelwa esinye isifundo[3] weFrance Development Agency (AFD):

"Imisebenzi eminingi emazweni asathuthuka (DCs) asemnothweni ongakahleleki [...]. Omunye angase acabange ngisho ukuthi sezomnotho esimanzonzo emhlabeni kuqinisa isisindo yokufakaza ngokwethukela ngenxa ukulahlekelwa umsebenzi ezithinta nezinye imikhakha yezomnotho. Baqonde kangcono indlela ke umnotho lala mazwe kudinga ulwazi olungcono ngokwethukela. "

Ingabe ukugqugquzela umkhakha ongahlelekile kungasiza kakhulu?

Izisebenzi eziningi kanye nezinyunyana zomnotho zikhetha ukubalekela ukulawulwa kombuso ngoba kuzoba kubi kakhulu ukuba zihambisane nomthetho. Futhi ezimweni eziningi, ukuphoqa ukuba bahambisane nale mithetho ngeke kubangele ukusebenza kahle komnothongisho noma bezofaka isandla ekuxhaseni izimpahla zomphakathi abazizuzayo. Kubalulekile ukucabangela lokhu okuyiqiniso futhi ukugwema umbono ojwayelekile wokusebenza lapho kuhlaziywa izimakethe zabasebenzi e-Afrika engaphansi kweSahara.

Umdwebo we-2: Ingozi Yokuqashwa Okungakahleleki Isifunda

Njengoba kubonakala kulolu nani, umkhakha ongakahleleki ukhiqiza imisebenzi eminingi kunomsebenzi osemthethweni eLatin America, e-Asia nase-Afrika. EGibhithe, isibonelo, inani labasebenzi emkhakheni we-informal lilingana nalokhu emkhakheni ongakahleleki. umphakathi. Kuyinto yokuphila ngokubhekene nezinkinga zemisebenzi. E-Senegal, I-General Census of Enterprises (EGR) ekhishwe ekupheleni ngekota yokuqala 2017, 407 000 kwamanye "amayunithi kwezomnotho" abalwa, abantu abangaphezu kwengxenye abakhuthele ukuhweba. Kodwa "ngaphezu kwe-96% yizinkampani ezizimele futhi i-97% yamayunithi wezomnotho afakwe ohlwini olungakahlelekile". Ngakho-ke, ukwaziswa kungabalulekile ekulwa nobubha.

« Imakethe yezabasebenzi esebenza kahle ayiyona into efana nemakethe yomsebenzi ehlelekile[4]»

kulokhu, uMartin Rama, uMqondisi we-2013 World Development Report, esanduleleni sakhe sencwadi ye-AFD emakethe yemisebenzi yasemadolobheni ase-Afrika engaphansi kweSahara.

Ngempela, iningi lemisebenzi yezomnotho e-Afrika ayifanele, ilandelwe imisebenzi emkhakheni womphakathi. Ukungajwayelekile kuyinto evamile. Lokhu kuyinkinga ebalulekile ngoba ukunganaki abaqhubi bemakethe engakahleleki kubonakala ekuhluphekeni kwezenhlalo nezombangazwe; njenge-"Spring Spring" ye-2011, eyaqala eTunisia ngokususwa komthengisi womgwaqo ongakahleleki wezithelo nemifino ehlukumezwe ngamaphoyisa.

Ingabe imfundo ithonya indlela yokuqondisa emkhakheni ongakahleleki?

Imisebenzi engakahleleki ayikhona nje ngamasu okusinda kodwa ngokukhetha okukhululekile nokuqaphela abantu base-Afrika. Kunenombolo real micro-osomabhizinisi. Ngakho-ke kuyoba okuthakazelisayo ukwazi ukuthi izinga lemfundo, ngakho-ke[5] kuthonya le ndlela yokufinyelela emnothweni osemthethweni. Ngamanye amazwi, abasebenzi emkhakheni informal kukhona bona ngamabomu noma kungcono stopgap, ithayi eliyisipele uma kungekho indlela yokuphuma kule komphakathi kanye nezinkampani ezizimele?

UPierre Tegoum, uzobheka lolu daba, njengomhlahlandlela wokuhlaziya eCameroon[6]. Kubonisa ukuthi imfundo idlala indima ebalulekile esimweni sobuchwepheshe sabasebenzi baseCameroon. Ukuhlanganiswa emkhakheni ongakahleleki kuncike ikakhulukazi ngokomongo womndeni. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amathuba okungena emkhakheni we-informal wehla ngemfundo, kanti amathuba okungahlali futhi angene emkhakheni ohleliwe ngokukhula kwemfundo. Ngakho-ke kuyadingeka ukuthuthukisa ukufinyeleleka kanye nekhwalithi yemfundo, okungenani kuze kube umjikelezo wokuqala wemfundo yesibili.

Isiphetho

Inhloso yethu kwakuwukukhombisa ukuthi umkhakha ongakahleleki ungumvuthwandaba wokuthuthukiswa kwendawo kanye nokuhlanganiswa okuphansi e-Afrika. Ukwenziwa kwalo kungabangela ukuguqulwa kwesakhiwo futhi esimeme we-Afrika. Abenzi benqubomgomo kumele benze umkhakha ongakahleleki ube ngumlingani weqiniso wenqubomgomo yentuthuko nokuhlanganiswa e-Afrika[7]. Ngenxa yokuthi ukukhula kwamanje akwanele, inguquko yezomnotho nezenhlalakahle i-Afrika idinga. Izinqubomgomo zomphakathi zizodingeka ukuze kukhuthazwe ukuhlukahluka komnotho, kwandiswe ukuncintisana futhi kukhuthaze imisebenzi eminingi yokudala amathuba emisebenzi emhlabathini wase-Afrika.

[1] Njengesikhumbuzo, i-IMF iye yahlenga kabusha uhlaka lomkhakha ongahlelekile. Ukuze isikhungo "leli gama lihlanganisa amabhizinisi umndeni ukuthi ukukhiqiza inani elithile emakethe ngaphandle kokuba ebhalisiwe ngokunabile, ngomshoshaphansi okubangelwa imisebenzi yokukhiqiza ukuthi zenziwa ngamabhizinisi obhalisiwe, kodwa asikwazi ukubikwa emagunyeni ukugwema umthethonqubo noma intela, noma ngenxa yokuthi imane engekho emthethweni. "

[2] IMF, "World Economic Outlook, April 2018" MFIs, afinyelelwe Juni 22 2018, https://www.imf.org/fr/Publications/WEO/Issues/2018/03/20/world-economic- ukuba nombono ongafani ngeke-april-2018.

[3] UJean-Pierre Cling et al. Umnotho ongakahleleki emazweni asathuthuka (AFD, i-2012).

[4] DE VREYER Philippe noROUBAUD François, ama-eds., Izimakethe zomsebenzi zasemadolobheni e-Afrika engaphansi kweSahara, I-IRD / AFD, iforamu yezokuthuthukiswa kwe-Afrika (i-Marseille: i-IRD Publishing, i-2013)., P. 11.

[5] «Ukufaneleka e-Afrika: ukuguqulwa kweparadigm ekuthuthukiseni amakhono obuchwepheshe nobuchwepheshe | ADEA ", afinyelelwe Juni 20 2018, http://www.adeanet.org/fr/blogs/la-qualification-en-afrique-changement-de-paradigme-vers-le-developpement-des-competences.

[6] UPierre Nguetse Tegoum, "2.2. Ukuhlaziywa kwembuyiselo yemfundo emkhakheni ongakahleleki eCameroon [40] ", Umnotho ongakahleleki emazweni asathuthuka, I-2012, i-1129.

[7] Issofou Njifen, "Ukungahleleki: i-paradigm entsha yentuthuko nokuhlanganiswa" kusukela ngezansi "e-Afrika, Ukubuyekezwa kwezokuthuthukiswa kwe-Afrika I-26, no I-S1 (nd): 21-32, https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8268.12090.

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