I-geometry yaseGibhithe: umnikelo we-Afrika yasendulo kwizibalo zomhlaba

Ijometri yaseGibhithe

Le Cahier n ° 1 ye-African Institute of Egyptology Cheik Anta Diop iphathelene nolwazi lwakudala lwejometri olwalukhona futhi lwachuma eGibhithe ngesikhathi semi-pharaohs. Izixhumanisi azihlanganisiwe nezinye izinto ze-geometric zase-Afrika nolwazi olungaphandle kweNayile Valley. I-geometry yaseGibhithe ibekwa endaweni yayo efanelekile yomlando, umlando kanye namasiko.

Incwadi, emfushane ne-didactic, ngaleyo ndlela ikhipha inkambiso yonke yomqondo we-geometric yase-Afrika ezimeni ezithambekisiwe zamakhalori wesimanjemanje asezingeni eliphakeme.

Bekunzima ukugwema umlando walesi simiso esihle futhi esiqinile somqondo womuntu okuyi-geometry, ikakhulukazi njengoba amaGriki uqobo ekhombisile, ngamabomu, ukuthi ezabo izakhi zejometri sezithuthukile kulokho okutholwe eGibhithe. Ngokwenhloso yawo nangokusondela kwawo, lo msebenzi kumele ubhekwe njengonikela olukhulu olwazini lomlando wesayensi namasiko e-Afrika osalokhu ubhalwa futhi wahlolwa.

Ngabe kufanele sikhulume ngezibalo, isayensi yezinkanyezi, isayensi, inkolo, ukungawunaki umnikelo wempucuko yabantu abamnyama baseGibhithe kwabanye abantu (abamhlophe, abangamaSemite).

Ukuhunyushwa kwegama lezibalo okwenziwa abaseGibhithe: indlela efanelekile yophenyo emvelweni ukwazi konke okukhona, imfihlo ngayinye, zonke izimfihlo).

Abantu abamnyama baseGibhithe ngaphambi kokungenelela (abamhlophe, abangamaSemite) basishiyela imithombo ebhaliwe yezibalo enjengokuthi:

  • I-papyrus yaseBerlin (zibalo zedigri yesibili, izimpande zesikwele)
  • I-Papyrus Boulaq 18 kusukela eminyakeni engu-3700 (lapho sithola khona ubukhona be-zero). Encwadini yakhe Impucuko noma iBarbary, USolwazi Cheikh Anta Diop usitshela ukuthi:Ngenkulungwane yesithathu yeminyaka, abaseGibhithe base besungule ukubalwa kwenombolo futhi bathola noma babona u-zero, njengoba kufakazelwa ukufakwa kwesikhala lapho lapho sizobeka khona namhlanje.
  • I-Papyrus of Kahun (ukubalwa kwevolumu yesilinda, izibalo, izibalo zezinga lesibili, izimpande zesikwele)
  • I-Moscow Papyrus (Ubude be-544 cm) i-1850 ngaphambi kwenkathi yethu enezinkinga ze-25: ukubalwa kokwenza isinkwa, ukwakhiwa kukabhiya, ukulinganiswa kweziqu zokuqala, inkinga yejometri, ivolumu yephiramidi encishisiwe, ingaphezulu kwesigamu sphere.
  • I-Papyrus of Reisner (Isikhathi se-Sesostris 1er I-1971-1928 ngaphambi kwenkathi yethu) ukubalwa: ukumba kwesisekelo sethempeli, umthamo wamabhulokhi wamatshe, amapulani wophahla, izindonga, imisele nemisele.
  • Ngemuva kwePapyrus (Ubude be-543 cm), ephelele kakhulu ngezinkinga ze-arithmetic ne-algebra, ivolumu namandla, indawo ephezulu (isikwele, isiyingi, unxantathu, trapezoid, unxantathu,), i-trigonometry (i-slope angle yephiramidi, Isigaxa), amanani alingene wezinsimbi eziyigugu, ukwahlukaniswa kwenombolo ezingxenyeni ezingalingani, ukulungiswa kwezingxenyana ngenombolo 2, njll. Ngu-A. Eisenlohr owanikeza ku-1877 ukubalwa kwezinkinga zezinkinga ze-87 zale papyrus futhi kungukuqanjwa lokhu okulandela ngemuva kokuphela kwekhulu le-XIX.

I-Tografikhi nemidwebo ye-cartography kungukuqalwa kwaseGibhithe: kuya ku-1100 ngaphambi kwenkathi yethu ngemephu ebizwa ngokuthi yizimayini zegolide nezikweletu ezibhalwe emaphepheni eduze kwe-2.82 m kanye nokuphakama kwe-41 cm (imnyuziyamu yaseTurin Italy). Usosayensi wokuqala owabhala umbuthano egcekeni yisazi sezibalo saseGibhithe u-Ahmès (cishe nge-1650 ngaphambi kwenkathi yethu).

Ukuze bazimele ebalazweni, abaseGibhithe basungula uhlelo olwalubizwa ngokuthi yi-folding system okuyiyona nhlangano yokujikeleza esebenza ngokuqondile embonini yendiza ukuyiyisa kwenye yezindiza ezilandelwayo.

Lolu hlelo lwalusetshenziselwa ikhulu leshumi nesikhombisa lesikhathi sethu, lwabe selunikezwa ukubikezelwa kwe-orthogonal.

Kufanele kuqashelwe ukuthi maqondana ne-2400 ngaphambi kwenkathi yethu amaBabiloni aseMesophothamiya asebenzisa amamephu asendulo, ku-1463 ngaphambi kwenkathi yethu abaseGibhithe badweba imephu eqondile yesibhakabhaka. IGibhithe inamashadi esibhakabhaka. Ukudilizwa kwezinkanyezi kwezinkanyezi ethuneni le-senenmut toirir Bah Bahari kuyinto ebalazweni elinembile lesibhakabhaka, unyaka we-1463 ngaphambi kwenkathi yethu, imibuthano ye-12 imele izinyanga ze-12 zonyaka weGibhithe. Isikhungo, ukwahlukanisa imibuthano ibe ngamaqembu amabili angafani (iqembu le-4 neqembu le-8), unxantathu omude futhi omfishane ufuzisela i-meridian esicongweni okuyisiyingi esincane esixhunywe kwi-Big Dipper (isithombe senkunzi). AbaseGibhithe babazi izinkanyezi eziyisikhombisa eziphambili zalo mfanekiso. Unkulunkulu wobukhosi u-Anu uboniswa ngaphansi kweBig Dipper, ephethe umkhonto. Uma sinwebisa lo mkhonto kanye ne-meridian, imigqa emibili ihlangana eNorth Pole (ukwenqatshelwa kwe-90 °), i-Meridian ngokwayo isekhompyutheni (ukwenqaba kwe-0 °) ngenkanyezi enkulu i-Ursea, ithatha indawo yayo ngqo (68.2 °), okuwukuncipha kwesikhathi seSenmout (1463 ngaphambi kwenkathi yethu).

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