I-Afrika: ama-agro-imperialists athatha indawo epulazini

Ukubanjwa komhlaba noma ukubanjwa komhlaba yizikhulu

Izwekazi lase-Afrika, okuwukuphela kwalo elinenxenye yesine yomhlaba ovundile womhlaba, liphethe ama-41% wemisebenzi yomhlaba, inani eliphelele lokuthengiselana kwe1 515 emhlabeni jikelele, ngokusho kombiko wakamuva we-NGO ActionAid International, owabuya emuva kwangathi i-2014. Kusukela ngonyaka we-2000, sekubhaliwe okuningi okwenziwe ngama-1 600, okuyindawo ephelele yamahektha ayizigidi ze-60, kusho i-NGO ukuthi kungenzeka nokuthi ukutholwa okuningi Isilinganiso esiphakathi noma esikhulu sisale kuze kube manje asibhalwe phansi futhi asichazanga. Lo mbiko wamakhasi angamashumi amabili, obhalwe ngesihloko emhlabeni: indlela umhlaba ovula ngayo indlela yokubanjwa komhlaba yizinkampani, usembulela ubukhulu bale nto engasabisi ukusinda kwezigidi kuphela zabantu emhlabeni wonke, kepha futhi ezisengozini yemvelo, amahlathi nezinhlobo zezilwane.

I-NGO inesifiso esikhulu e-Afrika, ngoba leli lizwekazi selibe yinto entsha yokuheha abantu abaningi, imali yempesheni kanye namaqembu amakhulu okudla abathole, ngokubumbana kohulumeni basekhaya, izigidi zamadola. amahektha omhlaba olimekayo.

Amazwe aseqalile nokuthenga umhlaba ovundile ukuze ahlangabezane nezidingo zawo zokudla futhi akhiqize ama-biofuel. ISaudi Arabia, Qatar, India kuvame ukucashunwa kuyo imibiko yale ma-NGOs eye yakhomba namandla amakhulu, njenge-United States, amanye amazwe angamalungu e-European Union (France, Germany, Great Britain) , Netherlands), futhi eminyakeni yamuva nje, iChina ifuna ukuba nengxenye yayo e-Afrika ukufeza izidingo zasendaweni. E-sub-Saharan Africa, isifunda esinokuphazamiseka okuphezulu kwezombusazwe nakwezokuphepha, ukuthathwa komhlaba omi ovundile owenziwe yiziphathimandla, ezihlwaye izinkulungwane zabalimi umthombo wabo oyinhloko wokusinda.

Ukuqothulwa komhlaba kuye kwasungulwa ukungabi khona kwezinto eziphathekayo abahlali abazange bakwazi ukuzenza, endaweni lapho umhlaba ulawulwa khona izinhloko zezizwe.

Amazwe empini, izwe elidayiswayo?

E-Afrika engaseningizimu yeSahara, i-10% yalezi zizwe ezivuthiwe ibhaliswe ezirejistini ezisemthethweni. Ezolimo umfutho ngaphansi ikhava ukuqeda indlala ukuthi zihlupha njalo izigidi zabantu kule ndawo eyomile, ohulumeni basekhaya asethengisiwe cishe ngentengo ufanekisela amakhulu ezinkulungwane amahektha ukuze biofuel abakhiqizi abaye bagxeka ama-NGO amaningi, kuhlanganise noGrain, okuhlala njalo ehlaselwa amanye amazwe athengisa la mazwe.

Kulula ukubona ukuthi amazwe okubhekiswe yilabo sengathi zimali ziyafana ukuthi ukunyakaziswa yizingxabano zezombangazwe nezimpi zobuzwe nezenkolo. I zihlanganisa South Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC noma Congo - Kinshasa), Sudan, Sierra Leone, Mozambique, Liberia, Tanzania, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Nigeria kanye Republic IsiCongo (Congo-Brazzaville). Isiqhingi Red (Madagascar) owaphila izinkinga sezombusazwe kuleliya 2009, kulandela wokumelana ukudayiswa 300 000 amahektha sezwe ngokuqinile South Korean Daewoo, uhlala ilitshe ezidla ezinye ka nomhlabathi ovundile.

Ngamanye amazwi, ngaphandle empini yase-ukulawula uwoyela amaminerali ezifakwa kula mazwe, enye impi ezenzeka ebusweni futhi ilukuluku abezindaba ezivame ukubona e ukuvukela kwezinceku abampofu e-Afrika ukuthi udlame phakathi kwezizwe emhlabeni ukuxhashazwa kwamaphuzu amanzi namadlelo. Kodwa-ke, inqwaba yabantu, phakathi kwabalimi nabelusi, ihlaselwa ohulumeni babo, ababazingela nge-powder ne-bulldozers ezivela emasimini abo, abahlala kuwo iminyaka eminingi. Izindawo ezingezona nje izikhala zokuphila komnotho, kodwa amasiko okhokho. Kwemibhikisho ukuthi wazamazama Maputo 2010 akazange akuvimbele ukukhandwa uhulumeni ukunikeza kumahekthare ayizigidi ezingu 6,6 e-US kanye nezinkampani zakwamanye amazwe. I-Mozambique ine-hektare yezigidi ezingu-36 zomhlaba ovulekile, noma i-46% yendawo yayo, efanelekile ukulima, futhi yi-10% kuphela eqhutshwayo.

Esikhundleni sokumisa inqubomgomo yezolimo evikelekile yokudla okuzoqinisekisa ukuphepha kokudla, uhulumeni waseMaputo ukhetha ukuyeka umhlaba wakhe embonini yezinto eziphilayo ezibhubhisa. Okwamanje, i-40% yamaMozambique ihlupheka ngenxa yokungondleki, ngokusho kwezibalo ezisemthethweni ze-UN NGOs.

I-Democratic Republic of Congo (i-DRC) ayizange isuke embusweni kusukela i-50% yomhlaba wayo ovundile udlule ngaphansi kokulawulwa kwamazwe angaphandle namafemu angaphandle ayenesithakazelo ekusetshenzisweni kwephansi ngaphansi ngaphandle kokukhokha intela noma imali.

Futhi uma kufanele bakhokhe, lezi zibalo zihlekisa futhi kunalokho zizuze amalungu omndeni ophethe. Lokhu kunjalo futhi engumakhelwane Republic of Congo lapho ithengiswe 46% ezweni layo evundile kuya izilwane ezidla ezinye efanayo kukhona afuna ucezu kancane ezweni cultivable, kungakhathaliseki ukuthi kungenjongo yokuba ukudla noma okuphakelayo umkhakha inani labantu abathengayo, njengalokhu kwenzeka eSaudi Arabia naseQatar, amazwe amabili ehlane ayengenisa konke ukudla kwawo. Bobabili amazwe eyakuthola ngenkathi intengo yokucindezelwa nguhulumeni zase-Addis Ababa ngokumelene abalimi kanye Abanikazi bamapulazi, amashumi ezinkulungwane amahektha ukuze kwaneliswe isidingo ezifuywayo ukuze izithelo nemifino. Ukusola kokubulawa kwabantu okwakhiwa yibutho laseTopiya ukuze kususwe phansi "kubatshalizimali" kuye kwaba incwadi efile.

Bangobani abathengi?

"I-United States kukhona umthombo izivumelwano kakhulu utshalomali (izigidi ezingu 7,09 hectares), kulandele Malaysia (3,35 m ha), i-United Arab Emirates (2,82 m ha), e-United Kingdom (m 2,96 ha), India (1,99 m ha), Singapore (1,88 m ha), Netherlands (1,68 m ha), Saudi Arabia (1,57 m ha), Brazil (1,37 m ha), futhi China (1,34 m ha), "ubala idokhumenti ezikhishwe ActionAid ikhombe Land Matrix, inhlangano ezimele ukuthi has a database ocebile umhlaba ukuthengiselana bhalisiwe emhlabeni wonke.

Ngaphandle kwamazwe okuthenga, izikhungo zezezimali, izimali zokutshalwa kwezimali kanye namaqembu ezimboni eziye zaphazamiseka kakhulu ngengozi yezomnotho ye-2008, ziye zaqondisa intshisekelo yazo kulo makethe.

"Ucwaningo oluqhutshwa uDeutsche Bank Research lubonisa ukuthi kunezigaba ezintathu ezinkulu ezithinta izomnotho ezithintekayo emkhakheni wezolimo: ohulumeni abafuna ukuthola umhlaba ngaphandle ukuze bavikele izimpahla zabo zokudla ezinamandla, izinkampani zezolimo ezifuna ukwandisa ukukhiqizwa kwazo noma ukuhlanganisa ukuthengiswa kwezimali, kanye nabathengi bemali, "wanezela umbhalo ofanayo. abadlali onethonya kwezezimayini, amabhizinisi ezokuvakasha kanye namahlathi ezivuna ayihlalanga kude le mpi ukuthi kuzokwenza eside, esikhulu ukuqhuma nomphakathi kuleli zwekazi. "Ucwaningo lubonisa ukuthi laba abadlali abenzi lutho. Ngokucindezela izwe, izithakazelo zeqembu elilodwa labadlali bazoshukumisa izenzo zamanye amaqembu, "wanezela umbiko we-ActionAid International.

Abasimilayo emazweni ase-Afrika bazama ukuzihlela, basizwa yi-NGOs ezama ngandlela-thile umbono obala womphakathi jikelele kanye neziphathimandla ze-UN. Ukulwa okwamanje okwehliswayo ezimweni eziningi lapho ukucindezela kwendawo kucindezela futhi kubophe bonke labo abafuna ukubhekana nalokho okubizwa ngokuthi iphrojekthi yokutshalwa kwezimali, ukuthuthukiswa okuqhubekayo, ukuvuselelwa kwezomnotho, njll.

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